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Table 4 Evidences on supply chain management of immunization service in Ethiopia

From: What we know and don’t know about the immunization program of Ethiopia: a scoping review of the literature

S.N Authors Design Sample Topic Study area Major findings Conclusions
1 Y. BERHANE (2000) Institution based cross-sectional survey 67 health institutions providing static vaccination services Cold chain status at immunization centers in Ethiopia Addis Ababa
city, and Hadiya Zones of southern Ethiopia
• Thermometer was not available in 6.3%
• Vaccine storage in the refrigerator was not proper in 73.4% centers
• Majority of the centers had neither trained personnel nor budget for maintenance of the cold chain
• Improving the maintenance conditions of refrigerators and
• Introduction of cold chain monitoring devises are recommended
2 EPHI (2012) Cross sectional survey 585 government-run health facilities Ethiopian national immunization coverage survey National • 45.2% of health posts and 2.1% of health centers, reported absence of vaccine refrigerator
• 38.6% of health posts and 43.6% of health centers experienced stock-outs
• Proper vaccine stock management is required
3 Roqie p (2012) Institution based cross-sectional study 116 health facilities Assessment of cold chain status for immunization in central Ethiopia. Three districts (woredas) of Oromiya, SNNP and Amhara Regions • Only 19% had functional refrigerators
• Complete temperature recording of the last month was observed in 59.1%
• Vaccine storage in the refrigerator was not proper in 54.5% facilities
• 56% health workers had satisfactory knowledge on cold chain management
• There is an urgent need to improve knowledge and practice on cold chain management through improved supervision and training.
4 Bedasa Woldemichael
Institution based cross-sectional study 183 health facilities Cold Chain Status and Knowledge of Vaccine Providers at Bale Zone, Southeast Ethiopia: Bale Zone, Southeast Ethiopia • Only 31% health facilities had refrigerator
• In 83% refrigerators thermometer was within the standard range
• There were gap in maintaining cold chain system and improper storage of vaccine were observed at study area
5 JSI L10k (2015) Cross-sectional household and facility surveys Selected health facilities Extended Program on Immunization (EPI) coverage in selected Ethiopian zones: A baseline survey Seven Zones, Ethiopia • Almost all HCs and one-third of HPs had at least one refrigerator
• Refrigerators were not functional in 32% health centers and 71% of HPs
• 67% health centers and 40% health posts experienced shortage of vaccines
• In a significant proportion of facilities, cold chain management was suboptimal
• Operational research to guide implementation
6 EPHI (2016) Cross sectional 705 Health facilities SARA, Ethiopia National • Refrigerators and cold boxes were available in 31 and 71% of HFs • Low cold chain equipment’s