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Table 4 Hurdle Model: cardiovascular diseases, mental disorders, injuries ED contacts by origin area and time-period, 2005–2015

From: Disparities in emergency department use between Italians and migrants residing in Rome, Italy: the Rome Dynamic Longitudinal Study from 2005 to 2015

   CVDs Mental disorders Injuries
N
Zero-part model
Zero-part model   Count-part model Zero-part model   Count-part model Zero-part model   Count-part model
OR 95% CI N RR 95% CI OR 95% CI N RR 95% CI OR 95% CI N RR 95% CI
Origin area
 Italya
 HDCb 48,256 0.17 (0.14–0.22) 232 0.77 (0.37–1.62) 0.22 (0.17–0.28) 183 0.71 (0.39–1.29) 0.25 (0.23–0.26) 3790 0.69 (0.62–0.77)
 Africa 76,575 0.47 (0.40–0.54) 773 1.09 (0.75–1.58) 0.47 (0.41–0.54) 640 0.78 (0.56–1.09) 0.42 (0.40–0.43) 9723 0.89 (0.84–0.95)
 Latin-America 62,904 0.35 (0.29–0.42) 486 0.97 (0.58–1.62) 0.54 (0.47–0.62) 692 0.41 (0.28–0.61) 0.58 (0.56–0.60) 10,931 0.85 (0.80–0.90)
 Asia 62,904 0.59 (0.54–0.65) 2096 1.05 (0.83–1.34) 0.24 (0.21–0.28) 734 0.63 (0.45–0.88) 0.31 (0.30–0.32) 16,942 0.61 (0.58–0.65)
 Central- Eastern Europe 213,961 0.49 (0.45–0.54) 2466 1.19 (0.94–1.51) 0.49 (0.45–0.53) 2566 0.62 (0.50–0.77) 0.47 (0.46–0.48) 34,543 0.85 (0.82–0.89)
Time-period
 Pre-2008a
 Post-2008 2,035,479 1.60 (1.57–1.62) 54,345 0.88 (0.85–0.91) 1.31 (1.28–1.33) 34,599 0.91 (0.88–0.95) 1.21 (1.20–1.22) 501,157 0.82 (0.81–0.83)
N observations 3,772,584    84,610      57,820      882,930   
  1. a Reference category
  2. b Highly Developed Countries
  3. Adjusted for: gender and age.
  4. Zero-part model reports odds ratios for the outcome variable indicating persons without (Y = 0) or with Emergency Department experience (Y = 1, where all values larger than 0 are censored, which means, are fixed at 1), while the Count-part model, which reports rate ratios, models the number of Emergency Department experiences for those with Emergency Department experiences (for those with Y > 0)