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Table 3 Fully-adjusted prevalence ratios for food insecurity and food assistance use for sexual minority compared to exclusively heterosexual women in the US: NHANES 2005–2014 (n = 7379)

From: Sexual orientation disparities in food insecurity and food assistance use in U.S. adult women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2014

  Food Insecurity Severe food insecurity SNAP use Emergency food assistance use
PR (95% CI)
Sexual Orientation
 Lesbian WSW 1.52* (1.05–2.20) 1.84* (1.13–3.01) 1.13 (0.74–1.73) 1.89** (1.29–2.79)
 Bisexual WSW 1.34* (1.05–1.70) 1.50* (1.04–2.16) 1.12 (0.94–1.24) 1.36 (0.97–1.89)
 Heterosexual WSW 1.35* (1.05–1.72) 1.68** (1.20–2.36) 1.20 (0.98–1.47) 1.43* (1.03–2.00)
 Exclusively heterosexual Ref Ref Ref Ref
Age
 20–25 1.06 (0.90–1.26) 0.91 (0.68–1.20) 1.21* (1.03–1.41) 0.65*** (0.51–0.83)
 26–35 1.02 (0.88–1.19) 1.01 (0.79–1.30) 1.32*** (1.17–1.48) 0.85 (0.71–1.03)
 36–45 1.16 (0.97–1.39) 1.16 (0.87–1.56) 1.03 (0.88–1.19) 0.95 (0.78–1.17)
 46–59 Ref Ref Ref Ref
Race/Ethnicity
 Person of color 1.40*** (1.20–1.62) 1.36** (1.10–1.69) 1.23*** (1.09–1.38) 1.06 (0.85–1.31)
 Non-Hispanic White Ref Ref Ref Ref
Education level
< High school 1.18** (1.05–1.32) 1.05 (0.86–1.26) 1.38*** (1.25–1.51) 1.03 (0.87–1.22)
 > High school Ref Ref Ref Ref
Income
 < 200% FPL 3.60*** (3.06–4.24) 4.75*** (3.54–6.39) 4.14*** (3.42–5.02) 4.24*** (2.99–6.02)
> 200% FPL Ref Ref Ref Ref
Health Insurance
 Public 1.87*** (1.62–2.16) 1.66*** (1.34–2.07) 3.80*** (3.10–4.65) 3.43*** (2.54–4.62)
 None 1.67*** (1.43–1.96) 1.43** (1.10–1.84) 2.30*** (1.92–2.77) 2.67*** (1.93–3.68)
 Private Ref Ref Ref Ref
Risky alcohol user
 Yes 0.93 (0.83–1.03) 1.66 (1.34–2.07) 3.80*** (3.10–4.65) 3.43** (2.54–4.62)
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref
Current smoker
 Yes 1.46*** (1.27–1.69) 1.89*** (1.50–2.39) 1.47*** (1.31–1.65) 1.78*** (1.45–2.18)
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref
Survey Year 1.10*** (1.06–1.16) 1.14*** (1.07–1.22) 1.12*** (1.08–1.18) 1.05 (0.97–1.13)
  1. PR Prevalence ratio, 95% CI 95% Confidence Interval. Exclusively heterosexual women served as the referent group to lesbian WSW, bisexual WSW, and heterosexual WSW. *P < .05 ** P < .01 ***P < .001