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Table 2 Asthma control factors in the GCC countries (Review 1): Factor clusters identified during literature analysis

From: Asthma control factors in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and the effectiveness of ICS/LABA fixed dose combinations: a dual rapid literature review

Factor Clusters Constituent Factors Associated with Asthma Control
Asthma-related education Education about: asthma, asthma medicines, correct use of inhaler device, how to prevent and treat symptoms, perception on the role of ICS, perception on using ER for asthma care
Environmental factors/exposures Altitude, dust, air pollution, seasonal variations, sandstorms, workplace triggers, thunderstorms, broken mountains, temperature, atmospheric pressure, incense, wood smoke, household chemicals, soft drinks consumption
Comorbidities Psychiatric illness (anxiety/depression/stress), allergies (rhinitis, sinusitis, skin allergy), family history of allergy, GERD, obesity, disability (including work-related disability), respiratory pathogens
Disease severity Actual/perceived disease severity, multiple ER visits/hospital admissions, previous requirement of systemic steroids
Demographic factors Age, gender, geographical distribution, number of siblings, number of pregnancies, marital status, nationality, residence (urban/rural)
Smoking Smoking (active and passive)
Asthma triggering drugs ACE inhibitors, β-blockers, aspirin, and NSAIDs
Adherence Adherence/regular ICS use, concomitant use of prophylactic medicines
Socioeconomic status Level of Education, Household income, occupation, employment status, socioeconomic class, bedroom sharing, daily stress
Factors related to patient care Presence of asthma management protocol, level of physician care, regular follow-ups, medical insurance, time from diagnosis, length of post-delivery hospital stay, use of herbal medicine
Inhalant allergens House dust mite, cat epithelia, cockroaches, moulds, unsealed mattresses, bedroom carpets, pets, rye wheat, pollens
History of respiratory complications Previous ICU/Neonatal ICU admission, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and history of previous asthma-related hospital admissions, tracheoesophageal fistulae, recurrent aspirations, intubation, intravenous steroids
  1. ACE Angiotensin-converting enzyme; ER Emergency room; GCC Gulf Cooperation Council; GERD Gastroesophageal reflux disease; ICS Inhaled corticosteroid; ICU Intensive care unit; NSAID Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
  2. Similar factors were grouped into the above clusters