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Table 1 Characteristics of participants by living arrangement

From: Factors associated with different numbers of health behaviors by living arrangements

Variables Categories Total Living with others Living alone P-value
Total   100.0%a
(Nb = 15,934)
92.0%a
(nb = 14,351)
8.0%a
(nb = 1583)
 
Socio-demographic characteristics
 Age 19–39 38.2 39.1 28.4 <  0.001
40–64 46.7 47.8 33.8  
65 and older 15.1 13.1 37.8  
 Sex Male 49.1 49.4 45.0 <  0.05
Female 50.9 50.6 55.0  
 Marital status Single 22.7 21.5 36.5 <  0.001
Married 77.3 78.5 63.5  
 Education level Elementary school or lower 16.6 14.6 38.8 <  0.001
Middle to high school 47.3 48.3 36.1  
College or higher 36.1 37.1 25.1  
 Economic level Lowest 15.3 12.8 44.7 <  0.001
Lower-middle, or upper-middle 54.2 55.5 39.4  
Highest 30.5 31.7 15.9  
 Employment status Unemployed/non-economic activity 37.4 36.6 46.7 <  0.001
Employed 62.6 63.4 53.3  
Health-related characteristics
 Self-rated health status Very poor 3.3 2.9 8.9 <  0.001
Poor 13.8 13.2 20.2  
Fair 50.8 51.3 45.1  
Good 27.0 27.5 20.7  
Very good 5.1 5.1 5.1  
 BMI Underweight 4.8 4.8 4.0 0.130
Normal 62.8 63.0 61.0  
Overweight 32.4 32.2 35.0  
 Diagnosis of chronic diseases Yes 49.1 47.8 63.6 <  0.001
No 50.9 52.2 36.4  
 Diagnosis of depression Yes 4.3 3.9 8.9 <  0.001
No 95.7 96.1 91.1  
 Stress Low 73.7 73.8 72.4 0.300
High 26.3 26.2 27.6  
 Sleep duration per day ≤ 5 h 15.1 14.2 25.7 <  0.001
6–8 h 77.9 78.8 67.4  
≥ 9 h 7.0 7.0 6.9  
  1. Note: The missing data was less than 5% and non-responses were excluded from the analysis. P-values were determined using Chi-square tests with complex sample analysis
  2. BMI Body mass index
  3. aWeighted percentages calculated by a complex sample analysis
  4. bUnweighted number