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Table 6 Model 3: Fixed-effect parameter estimates of within-person and between-person stress factors of momentary PA and NA based on multivariate mixed modeling (n = 1613)

From: Evaluating real-time momentary stress and affect in police officers using a smartphone application

Variables Momentary PA Momentary NA
Within-person (Level 1) Between-person (Level 2) Within-person (Level 1) Between-person (Level 2)
Coef. (SE) p Coef. (SE) p Coef. (SE) p Coef. (SE) p
Stress factors (by TICS)
 Work overload .25 (.14) .064 .33 (.16) .037 .04 (.21) .866 −.35 (.26) .177
 Social overload −.37 (.14) .011 −.20 (.16) .208 .09 (.22) .703 −.13 (.26) .632
 Excessive demands at work −.21 (.15) .172 −.11 (.18) .523 .37 (.24) .117 .32 (.29) .272
 Lack of social recognition −.12 (.20) .538 .23 (.23) .316 1.74 (.31) < .001 2.33 (.37) < .001
 Work discontent −.45 (.14) .002 −.73 (.16) < .001 1.59 (.22) < .001 1.88 (.26) < .001
 Social tension −.79 (.16) < .001 −.67 (.18) < .001 1.74 (.25) < .001 2.92 (.29) < .001
 Pressure to perform −.29 (.14) .039 −.49 (.14) < .001 .78 (.22) < .001 1.92 (.22) < .001
 Social isolation .48 (.10) < .001 .31 (.10) .002 .10 (.15) .519 .24 (.16) .138
Context With whom (ref. being alone)
 Colleagues .62 (.42) .142 .49 (.51) .347 −1.43 (.66) .029 −.49 (.83) .556
 Boss .22 (.46) .636 −.53 (.56) .344 −.58 (.72) .424 −.12 (.91) .896
 Civilians .69 (1.22) .576 1.34 (1.48) .362 1.50 (1.89) .429 1.94 (2.41) .423
 Family .71 (.24) .003 .92 (.27) .001 −1.38 (.37) < .001 −2.66 (.44) < .001
 Friends 1.89 (.40) < .001 2.45 (.47) < .001 −1.78 (.63) .004 −2.45 (.77) .001
Location (ref. police station)
 Working outside −.14 (.34) .684 −.40 (.40) .316 −.47 (.52) .365 .09 (.65) .892
 Home or other 1.01 (.51) .048 .86 (.61) .160 −1.18 (.79) .134 − 1.36 (1.00) .172
Type of task (ref. administration)
 Patrolling or investigating −.54 (.42) .202 −1.13 (.49) .020 −.21 (.66) .753 -.64 (.80) .414
 Resting or other .00 (.60) .998 −1.17 (.71) .100 −.73 (.93) .432 1.02 (1.16) .378
  1. These multivariate mixed model analyses for Model 3 were performed for momentary PA and NA as dependent variables and stress factors, contextual factors, and traits as independent variables at within-person (level l) and between-person (level 2) levels
  2. PA Positive affect; NA Negative affect; TICS Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress
  3. NOTE: age, sex, rank, work duration, occupational stress, and baseline affect were adjusted