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Table 1 Participants demographic, social and health-related characteristics and loneliness prevalence for each age group

From: Age differences in demographic, social and health-related factors associated with loneliness across the adult life span (19–65 years): a cross-sectional study in the Netherlands

  19–34 years 35–49 years 50–65 years
n (%) Lonely, n (%) n (%) Lonely, n (%) n (%) Lonely, n (%)
Demographic factors
 Gender
  Male 2528 (51.1) 887 (40.6) 3790 (50.0) 1462 (45.4) 5606 (50.1) 2641 (52.0)
  Female 3615 (48.9) 1155 (38.9) 4628 (50.0) 1646 (41.2) 6152 (49.9) 2518 (44.4)
 Education
  Low 579 (12.6) 351 (63.1) 1431 (21.4) 778 (57.9) 3868 (36.9) 2016 (53.6)
  Intermediate 2547 (47.9) 975 (40.4) 3319 (41.1) 1309 (41.7) 4096 (36.7) 1906 (47.7)
  High 2297 (39.5) 692 (31.5) 2930 (36.5) 987 (36.1) 3017 (26.3) 1173 (41.1)
 Ethnicity
  Dutch origin 5218 (78.7) 1592 (35.1) 6987 (76.9) 2394 (38.4) 10,021 (81.7) 4949 (46.0)
  Non-Dutch origin 925 (21.3) 450 (58.2) 1431 (23.1) 714 (60.1) 1737 (18.3) 910 (58.0)
 Employment Status
  Unemployed 1140 (24.8) 604 (54.9) 992 (14.9) 627 (70.2) 3402 (33.3) 1892 (57.7)
  Employed 4281 (75.2) 1414 (34.7) 6669 (85.1) 2441 (38.4) 7551 (66.7) 3193 (43.3)
 Financial imbalance
  No 4486 (81.6) 1441 (33.6) 6305 (80.0) 2203 (37.0) 9056 (80.1) 3766 (42.6)
  Yes 915 (18.4) 571 (67.0) 1358 (20.0) 864 (67.3) 1925 (19.9) 1336 (70.7)
 Marital status
  Married/living together 3126 (44.6) 881 (33.4) 6681 (77.2) 2188 (38.5) 9246 (76.5) 3673 (42.7)
  Never been married 2888 (53.9) 1103 (44.6) 982 (13.4) 527 (62.1) 738 (7.6) 435 (65.6)
  Divorced 76 (1.4) 38 (53.1) 679 (8.9) 359 (55.9) 1284 (12.3) 795 (68.4)
  Widowed 7 (0.2) 5 (74.4) 45 (0.5) 21 (59.1) 419 (3.6) 223 (57.5)
Social factors
 Living arrangement
  Living alone 776 (15.4) 352 (57.0) 895 (12.9) 507 (63.4) 1683 (16.9) 1042 (68.1)
  2 or more persons 5324 (84.6) 1668 (36.5) 7431 (87.1) 2556 (39.9) 9820 (83.1) 3982 (43.7)
 Volunteer work
  No 4133 (75.8) 1586 (40.9) 5367 (69.8) 2289 (45.7) 8018 (72.6) 3883 (49.8)
  Yes 1314 (24.2) 444 (35.8) 2329 (30.2) 801 (37.5) 2994 (27.4) 1237 (43.8)
 Informal caregiver
  No 5041 (93.8) 1879 (39.5) 6601 (86.5) 2630 (43.1) 8053 (75.0) 3860 (49.6)
  Yes 383 (6.2) 140 (41.2) 1061 (13.5) 440 (43.0) 2817 (25.0) 1185 (43.2)
 Family contact
  More than twice a month 5198 (94.5) 1871 (38.4) 7241 (93.5) 2678 (41.1) 10,062 (91.0) 4423 (45.3)
  Less than twice a month 246 (5.5) 159 (63.6) 451 (6.5) 324 (76.5) 954 (9.0) 694 (76.9)
 Friends contact
  More than twice a month 5139 (94.4) 1784 (37.2) 6800 (88.0) 2394 (38.4) 9382 (85.1) 3845 (42.5)
  Less than twice a month 304 (5.6) 245 (82.7) 895 (12.0) 701 (78.6) 1630 (14.9) 1272 (80.0)
 Neighbours contact
  More than twice a month 3816 (67.4) 1183 (33.1) 104 (78.5) 2127 (37.6) 8785 (79.0) 3640 (42.6)
  Less than twice a month 1626 (32.6) 846 (53.4) 1583 (21.5) 958 (63.8) 2204 (21.0) 1461 (68.6)
 Societal exclusion
  (Very) Often 545 (10.1) 1613 (34.8) 665 (8.9) 2553 (39.0) 1029 (9.5) 4949 (43.7)
  Sometimes, seldom, never 5264 (89.9) 424 (85.1) 7413 (91.1) 542 (87.0) 10,375 (90.5) 877 (90.6)
Health-related factors
 General health
  Poor 797 (13.0) 442 (64.2) 1593 (20.3) 935 (68.2) 3580 (31.7) 2201 (38.9)
  Good 5339 (87.0) 1597 (36.2) 6805 (79.7) 2166 (37.1) 8134 (68.3) 2940 (68.5)
 Limitations in daily activities
  No 4894 (81.5) 1418 (35.5) 6127 (74,0) 1969 (37.2) 6916 (58.7) 2535 (39.6)
  Yes 1131 (18,5) 587 (58.4) 2136 (26,0) 1080 (60.6) 4572 (41.3) 2518 (60.7)
 Psychological Distress
  No/low risk 3522 (57.5) 715 (24.8) 5068 (60,1) 1281 (29,8) 6735 (57.2) 2101 (33.4)
  Moderate/high risk 2539 (42.5) 1327 (60.6) 3246 (39,9) 1809 (64.0) 4899 (42.8) 3029 (68.0)
 Caregiver’s burden
  No burden 337 (5.5) 109 (37.0) 902 (11.3) 345 (394) 2426 (21.7) 946 (40.3)
  (Extreme) high/overburden 46 (0.7) 31 (74.1) 159 (2.2) 95 (61.8) 391 (3.3) 239 (62.5)
 Chronic disease
  No 4941 (81.5) 1500 (36.7) 6018 (71.9) 1997 (39.2) 6665 (56.5) 2489 (40.3)
  Yes 1188 (18.5) 538 (53.2) 2374 (28.1) 1103 (53.7) 5029 (43.5) 2641 (58.3)
 Psychological wellbeing (M + S.D.) 3.69 ± 1.0 3.19 ± 1.1 3.62 ± 1.1 3.18 ± 1.1 3.55 ± 1.1 3.10 ± 1.2
 Emotional wellbeing (M + S.D.) 3.87 ± 1.0 3.36 ± 1.1 3.84 ± 1.0 3.40 ± 1.1 3.81 ± 1.1 3.34 ± 1.2
 Social wellbeing (M + S.D.) 2.82 ± 1.2 2.35 ± 1.1 2.79 ± 1.2 2.39 ± 1.1 2.79 ± 1.2 2.36 ± 1.2
  1. n Total number, M Mean, S.D. Standard deviation