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Table 2 Dietary Micronutrient intake and adequacy of e-waste and non-e-waste recyclers at different time points

From: Micronutrient-rich dietary intake is associated with a reduction in the effects of particulate matter on blood pressure among electronic waste recyclers at Agbogbloshie, Ghana

Micronutrient
(mg)
RDA
(mg)
Dietary Micronutrient Intake % Micronutrients adequacy (=% > RDA)
E-waste Recycler Non-E-waste recyclers    E-waste Recyclers Non-E-waste recyclers  
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD T-test P-value n (%) n (%) p-value
WAVE I
 Ca 1000 518.15 ± 318.26 521.68 ± 345.92 −0.07 0.95 7 (4.4) 2 (3.2) 0.57
 Fe 8 26.35 ± 12.44 21.57 ± 9.85 2.70 0.004 127 (96.9) 62 (98.4) 0.18
 Cu 2 1.10 ± 0.58 1.05 ± 0.63 0.55 0.59 13 (9.2) 3 (4.8) 0.28
 Se 55 25.76 ± 18.74 34.87 ± 40.78 −2.16 0.10 22 (16.8) 15 (23.8) 0.24
 Mg 400 46.98 ± 44.27 78.84 ± 63.13 −4.12 0.001 4(2.8) 0(0) 0.55
 Zn 11 11.17 ± 4.06 9.38 ± 0.57 2.81 0.01 67(47.2) 18(28.6) 0.01
WAVE II
 Ca 1000 536.68 ± 273.46 560.80 ± 393.93 − 0.39 0.70 7(6.6) 3(6.0) 0.89
 Fe 8 29.10 ± 12.29 23.65 ± 10.54 2.86 0.005 111(98.2) 51(100) 0.34
 Cu 2 1.10 ± 0.54 0.98 ± 0.57 1.26 0.21 7(6.6) 3(6.0) 0.89
 Se 55 32.26 ± 22.35 35.25 ± 26.98 − 0.66 0.51 19(16.8) 13(25.5) 0.19
 Mg 400 45.99 ± 33.15 48.98 ± 37.56 −0.48 0.63 0(0) 1(2) 0.14
 Zn 11 11.57 ± 4.10 9.51 ± 3.89 3.02 0.003 59(55.7) 12(24.0) < 0.001
WAVE III
 Ca 1000 539.50 ± 228.41 574.71 ± 296.07 −0.70 0.48 5(4.9) 3(6.8) 0.64
 Fe 8 29.21 ± 11.28 22.49 ± 9.60 3.67 < 0.001 104(99.1) 43(97.7) 0.52
 Cu 2 1.16 ± 0.64 0.99 ± 0.71 1.32 0.19 12(11.8) 4(9.1) 0.64
 Se 55 37.53 ± 24.94 40.05 ± 25.86 −0.51 0.61 28(26.7) 13(29.6) 0.72
 Mg 400 41.58 ± 44.62 50.28 ± 40.66 −1.12 0.27 7(6.9) 2(4.6) 0.59
 Zn 11 11.33 ± 3.84 9.80 ± 4.73 1.89 0.06 56(54.9) 13(29.6) 0.01
  1. Abbreviations: Ca Calcium, Fe Iron, Cu Copper, Se Selenium, Mg Magnesium, Zn Zinc, RDA Recommended Daily Allowance