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Table 1 Sample characteristics, outcomes, and mean costs for young people aged 16–25 with and without caring responsibilities: all carers

From: The high cost of unpaid care by young people:health and economic impacts of providing unpaid care

CARER CHARACTERISTICS TIME 1 Aged 16–25, not providing unpaid care time 1 (N = 6342; 91.9%) % Aged 16–25, providing unpaid care time 1 (N = 561; 8.1%) %
Female* 50.4 58.3
Ethnicity*
 White ethnicity 69.4 73.8
 Black, Asian and minority ethnic 30.6 26.3
Physical health score* 54.8 53.3
Mental health score* 48.2 46.7
Married, living with partner, in civil partnership* 13.2 16.5
Highest educational qualification*
 Degree or higher degree 33.1 25.2
 A-level 38.9 25.2
 GCSE 24.6 30.0
 None 3.5 4.1
Housing tenure*
 Owner-occupied 56.4 52.0
 Private-rented 22.3 14.9
 Social-rented 21.3 33.2
EMPLOYMENT AND HEALTH TIME 2
 Unemployed or long-term sick/disabled* 16.1 24.4
 Left employment* 4.6 9.9
 Physical health score* 54.6 53.2
 Mental health score* 47.6 45.3
COSTS TIME 2 Mean (£) Mean (£)
Monthly net earnings from paid employment* 870 647
Annual tax revenue* 2096 1324
Monthly individual state welfare benefits* 81 150
Annual health service use* 310 686
  1. *p < .05
  2. Physical health score is Physical Component of the Short-Form 12 Health Survey (SF12 PCS); lower score = worse physical health. Mental health score is Mental Component of the Short-Form 12 Health Survey (SF12 MCS); lower score = worse mental health