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Table 2 Target groups of the National Traffic Safety Educational Program

From: Developing a national road traffic safety education program in Iran

Target groups Description Quotation
Preschoolers to university students Early childhood education was considered important in all discussions and interviews. Children should see safe behaviors in the cartoons and other programs in the early ages, because indirect education greatly affects their behaviors. On the other hands, a course of traffic must be included from kindergarten to university. According to the WHO’s definition, those below 18 fall into the category of children. “Behavior originates from childhood, becomes institutionalized, and grows.”
“In elementary and secondary schools by age of children.”
Youth They are above 18 years old who might be students, soldiers, or involved in other activities. They should receive necessary education, since they are at the age of getting a driver’s license. On the other hand, post-school education should also continue. “Today’s university student is tomorrow’s manager, employee, or teacher.”
“In barracks, dormitories, coffee houses, etc.
Teachers This group is a role model for children and adolescents; therefore, they should learn a proper traffic behavior and transfer it to those who make the future. Moreover, teachers as those who are responsible for traffic safety education must receive specific training. “Teachers also have a special impact on students.”
Parents Due to the interaction between parents and children and the impact of their behaviors on each other, all participants and experts in this study expressed that mothers and fathers should be trained about safe traffic behaviors and observe these cases in the daily life. “Parents are the primary role model for children.”
Elderly The WHO classifies the elderly as vulnerable groups who are at a greater risk due to the reduced motor and cognitive skills. “He is 80 years old and driving at the speed of 180 km/h in a Pride.”type of car
Motorcyclists Motorcyclists are the major group at risk of injury and see the most severe damage in traffic accidents. It is essential that all motorcyclists receive the required trainings to reduce accidents as well as injuries during an accident [25]. “Motorcyclists don’t care about the traffic lights”
“He has become a motorcycle messenger down on the streets.”
Cyclists Cycling is a form of physical activity that improves human health. Moreover, if bikes are more used in the transport system, the air pollution will be reduced; but, the cycling schools need to be increased with professional and recreational training periods. “Safety cases are taught to everyone, including drivers and cyclists.”
“There are a small number of cycling training and schools.”
Pedestrians In Iran, the rate of deaths caused by accidents among pedestrians in traffic accidents is above 30% [26]. “The pedestrian doesn’t even know where to pass.”
Drivers Given the high rate of accidents, deaths, and injuries caused by driving in the country, the drivers need to receive special training programs. “Driving is not just about parallel parking.”
“One is a driver while he has obtained his license 20 years ago.”
Driving license applicants, instructors and managers of driving schools Driver’s license centers give an identity of driver to the applicants, given that driving is not just about introduction to driving skills, the correct behaviors and rules related to traffic both as a driver and as a pedestrian must be taught to the applicants. For this purpose, the instructors and managers of driving schools must also receive special training to transfer it to students. “Even the instructor doesn’t care about the rules, what do you expect from the leaner?”
“Driver’s license is not a right for everyone, it doesn’t mean that everybody is supposed to have it, it is a competence.”
Special groups (disabled, blind, etc.) The WHO classifies people with disabilities as vulnerable groups who require specific trainings. “He is passing through the crossroads in a wheelchair.”
Managers at different levels, car manufacturers and policymakers Based on ecological patterns of behavior change, variations at the scale of policymaking could affect other layers and levels, and its impact is often greater. If synchronized with other levels, it will have synergistic effects. Higher sensitivity to the traffic safety problem is required to make it a priority in all policymaking. “It must be sent to all policymakers and mangers.”
“First, the managers must be trained.”