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Table 1 Summary of included papers

From: Sustainable by design: a systematic review of factors for health promotion program sustainability

StudyDefinition of SustainabilitySustainability Framework used/developedFactors
Altarum Institute 2009 [16]Shediac-Rizkallah and Bone, 1998 [11]Conceptual Model for Evaluating the Sustainability of Community Health Initiatives (Beery et al. 2005 [37])• Communications
• Funding (3)
• Organizational capacity (2)
• Partnerships
• Program evaluation (3)
• Strategic planning (3)
• Champion
• Political support
• Fit/alignment
Carstensen et al. 2019 [21]Scheirer 2013 [38]Normalization Process Theory (NPT) May and Finch 2009 [39]• Organizational capacity (6)
• Program adaptation
• Program evaluation
• Fit/alignment (3)
• Capacity building
• Policy
• Socio-economic/political factors
• Mandatory municipal action plans for users (clients)a
Casey et al. 2009 [17]Shediac-Rizkallah and Bone, 1998 [11]Assessing if a program is likely to be sustained checklist from “Indicators to help with Capacity Bulling in Health Promotion”
[40]
• Partnerships (2)
• Capacity building (2)
• Champion
• Fit/alignment (3)
• Funding (3)
Elsworth and Astbury 2005 [20]A sustainable program is one that has become routinized in an organization as well as standardized within policy making institutions.Multi-Level Model of Project Sustainability• Strategic planning
• Champion
• Organizational capacity
• Affordance: the opportunity provided by the policy or program for local innovationa
• Program accessa
Garst et al. 2017 [32]Scheirer and Dearing, 2011 [41]Framework for Sustainability of Translational Research Projects (adapted from Scheirer 2011 [41])• Communications (3)
• Partnerships (5)
• Strategic planning (2)
• Organizational capacity (3)
• Program evaluation (2)
• Socio-economic/political
Hill et al. 2011 [34]Sustainability refers to the long term continuation of effective programs, or, where there is a set of activities aimed at achieving the programs objectives that are incorporated into the organizations routines.12 factors for sustainability and sustainability checklist• Communications
• Organizational capacity (5)
• Partnerships (2)
• Public health impacts
• Program adaptation
• Strategic planning (1)
• Capacity building
• Champion (2)
• Fit/alignment (2)
• Program implementation
• Funding (2)
Hodge and Turner 2016 [19]Sustained program implementation is whether a program operated over multiple years.Sustained Implementation Support Framework for Evidence-Based-Programs.• Funding(3)
• Organizational capacity (17)
• Partnership (7)
• Public health impacts
• Political support (3)
• Program adaptation
• Program evaluation (3)
• Strategic planning (3)
• Capacity building (4)
• Champion
• Fit/alignment (2)
• Program implementation (5)
Office of Adolescent Health 2014 [35]Effectively leveraging partnerships and resources to continue programs, services and or strategic activities that result in improvements in the health and wellbeing of adolescents.
OAH recommends that grantees create their own definition of sustainability.
Framework for Program Sustainability• Funding (2)
• Partnerships (2)
• Political support
• Strategic planning (2)
Office of Adolescent Health 2017 [10]• Communications
• Funding (2)
• Organizational capacity (3)
• Partnerships (3)
• Program adaptation
• Strategic planning (3)
• Champion
• Capacity building
• Fit/alignment
Paine-Andrews et al. 2000 [33]The extent to which community changes facilitated by the initiatives remained in place after grant termination and the extent to which the initiatives themselves remained in place after grant termination.Model for Institutionalizing Health Promotion Programs (Steckler and Goodman 1989 [42])• Organizational capacity (3)
• Partnerships (2)
• Public health impacts (2)
• Strategic planning
• Champion
Sadof et al. 2006 [36]Sustainability is defined as the continuation of the central elements of the Inner City Asthma Intervention program.Framework for Conceptualizing Program Sustainability (Shediac-Rizkallah and Bone, 1998 [11])• Communications (2)
• Funding
• Organizational capacity (2)
• Partnerships (5)
• Political support (2)
• Program evaluation (7)
• Champion
Scheirer 2005 [12]Shediac-Rizkallah and Bone, 1998 [11]Framework for Conceptualizing Program Sustainability (Shediac-Rizkallah and Bone, 1998 [11])• Funding (2)
• Organizational capacity (5)
• Partnerships (4)
• Public health impacts (2)
• Program adaptation (2)
• Program evaluation (1)
• Strategic planning
• Capacity building
• Champion
• Fit/alignment (5)
• Program implementation (1)
• Funder prioritiesa
Schell et al. 2013 [5]The ability to maintain programming and its benefits over time.
Sustainability capacity is defined as the existence of structures and process that allow a program to leverage resources to effectively implement and maintain evidence based policies and activities.
Framework of public health program capacity for sustainability• Funding stability
• Political support
• Partnerships
• Organizational capacity
• Program adaptation
• Program evaluation
• Communications
• Public health impacts
• Strategic planning
Shediac-Rizkallah and Bone 1998 [11]Sustainability is a global term used to refer to the general phenomenon of program continuation. Three perspectives on sustainability:
1) maintain health benefits achieved through the initial program
2) continuation of the program activities within an organization structure and
3) building the capacity of the recipient community
Framework for Conceptualizing Program Sustainability• Funding (2)
• Organizational capacity
• Partnerships (2)
• Program evaluation
• Strategic planning (5)
• Capacity building
• Champion
• Socio-economic/political factors (3)
• Funder priorities (2)a
Whelan et al. 2018 [15]Sustainability of obesity prevention is defined as changes in behavioural determinants and/or BMI at least 12 months post the initial impact has been demonstrated.Ten Key Elements of sustainability [43]• Communications
• Funding
• Organizational capacity (6)
• Partnership (4)
• Program adaption
• Program evaluation (2)
• Capacity building (2)
• Champion
• Fit/alignment (1)
• Policya
Wisener et al. 2017 [18]A sustainable program is:
1) receptive to change and adaptable
2) an innovative strategy that provides continued benefit
3) fully integrated into normal operations post-project funding
4) of benefit to diverse stakeholders
Seven factors that promote or inhibit the sustainability of Community Learning Centres• Funding (2)
• Partnerships (4)
• Capacity building (3)
• Champion (2)
• Fit/alignment (3)
• Program access (2)a
  1. aTier 3