Skip to main content

Table 3 Associations of physical IPV and/or sexual victimization with mental health and substance use by region

From: Associations of physical partner violence and sexual violence victimization on health risk behaviours and mental health among university students from 25 countries

VariableRegion (prevalence of outcome variable)AORa (95% CI)
Mental health
 Depression severeAmericas (12.8%)2.04 (1.63, 2.55)***
Sub-Saharan Africa (12.8%)1.32 (1.12, 1.55)***
North Africa & Central Asia (16.2%)1.06 (0.82, 1.37)
South Asia and China (17.9%)1.45 (0.90, 2.35)
Southeast Asia (6.8%)1.16 (0.74, 1.83)
 LonelinessAmericas (10.6%)1.30 (0.94, 1.80)
Sub-Saharan Africa (10.8%)1.52 (1.17, 1.96)**
North Africa & Central Asia (12.3%)1.03 (0.75, 1.41)
South Asia and China (12.8%)1.43 (0.89, 2.30)
Southeast Asia (5.1%)1.75 (0.55, 5.63
 Post-traumatic stress disorderAmericas (18.3%)2.68 (2.00, 3.60)***
Sub-Saharan Africa (20.2%)2.22 (2.76, 2.80)***
North Africa & Central Asia (24.7%)1.32 (0.81, 2.14)
South Asia and China (19.4%)2.73 (1.53, 4.94)***
Southeast Asia (16.4%)2.80 (2.19, 3.57)***
 Sleeping problemAmericas (10.1%)1.58 (1.27, 1.96)***
Sub-Saharan Africa (11.1%)1.97 (1.58, 2.45)***
North Africa & Central Asia (9.9%)1.56 (1.24, 1.97)***
South Asia and China (8.4%)1.82 (11.0, 2.99)*
Southeast Asia (10.8%)1.06 (0.36, 3.05)
 Short sleepAmericas (42.1%)1.34 (1.00, 1.80)*
Sub-Saharan Africa (42.5%)1.05 (0.82, 1.33)
North Africa & Central Asia (35.8%)1.15 (0.75, 1.76)
South Asia and China (28.9%)2.82 (1.18, 6.76)*
Southeast Asia (45.1%)1.49 (0.68, 3.28)
Addictive behaviour
 Current binge drinkingAmericas (27.5%)1.27 (1.02, 1.59)*
Sub-Saharan Africa (11.6%)1.45 (1.02, 2.07)*
North Africa & Central Asia (10.6%)1.94 (1.38, 2.71)***
South Asia and China (2.7%)10.41 (9.01, 13.54)***
Southeast Asia (10.6%)2.93 (2.05, 4.17)***
 Current tobacco useAmericas (10.0%)1.41 (1.00, 2.00)*
Sub-Saharan Africa (12.6%)2.45 (1.52, 3.97)***
North Africa & Central Asia (23.4%)2.87 (2.33, 3.54)***
South Asia and China (7.5%)6.88 (3.11, 15.20)***
Southeast Asia (6.0%)2.30 (1.03, 5.16)*
 Drug use (10 or more times in past 12 months)Americas (4.4%)0.86 (0.51, 1.44)
Sub-Saharan Africa (7.3%)1.46 (0.92, 2.31)
North Africa & Central Asia (2.5%)1.99 (0.85, 4.64)
South Asia and China (0.9%)0.88 (0.18, 4.16)
Southeast Asia (4.2%)3.42 (2.36, 4.96)***
  1. AOR adjusted odds ratio; ***P < 0.001; **P < 0.01; *P < 0.05; aAdjusted for age, sex, study year, social support, family income or wealth, country, exposure to physical violence in childhood, binge drinking (if not outcome variable), depression (if not outcome variable) and PTSD (if not outcome variable)