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Table 2 Association between proportion of private education cost to EHDI and depression among parents

From: Correlation between private education costs and parental depression in South Korea

VariablesFathers’ CESDMothers’ CESD
βSE95% CIp-valueβSE95% CIp-value
Proportion of private education costa
 Tertile 1 (0~16.3%/0~17.5%)Ref.   Ref.   
 Tertile 2 (16.3~29.4%/17.5~29.0%)0.4190.1640.098~0.740.0105-0.0780.250-0.568~0.412.7555
 Tertile 3 (29.4%~/29.0%~)0.4760.1780.126~0.825.00760.0030.215-0.418~0.425.9882
EHDIb
 Tertile 1 (~198.0/~202.4)Ref.   Ref.   
 Tertile 2 (198.0~278.5/202.4~283.3)-0.0400.200-0.431~0.351.8415-0.3850.212-0.801~0.030.0692
 Tertile 3 (278.5~/283.3~)-0.3300.180-0.682~0.022.0662-0.3830.280-0.932~0.166.1713
Age0.0580.0180.022~0.093.00150.0200.038-0.054~0.094.5973
Education
 No high school education-0.2070.313-0.821~0.407.5084-0.2170.401-1.004~0.569.5880
 High school academic backgroundRef.   Ref.   
Work
 No-0.1120.395-0.886~0.662.77630.0770.184-0.285~0.438.6775
 YesRef.   Ref.   
Residence
 Suburban0.2940.209-0.115~0.704.1590-0.1490.328-0.792~0.494.6496
 UrbanRef.   Ref.   
Chronic disease
 None0.1630.136-0.103~0.429.2306-0.5220.168-0.851~-0.192.0019
 DiagnosedRef.   Ref.   
RSS-0.0210.042-0.103~0.061.61910.0620.046-0.027~0.151.1713
AUDIT0.0420.0130.016~0.068.00170.0200.030-0.038~0.078.4946
Fee satisfaction-0.5920.089-0.767~-0.417<.0001-0.4520.098-0.643~-0.261<.0001
Family satisfaction-0.0780.072-0.220~0.064.2805-0.0970.077-0.248~0.055.2109
Child satisfaction-0.4780.145-0.762~-0.194.0010-0.3920.165-0.714~-0.069.0172
Child's GPA
 Low0.2780.245-0.203~0.758.2569-0.0300.330-0.676~0.617.9280
 Middle0.2180.143-0.061~0.498.12600.0860.180-0.267~0.439.6322
 HighRef.   Ref.   
Child's study stress
 Tertile 1 (0~6/0~6)0.0850.160-0.229~0.399.5959-0.7530.270-1.283~-0.224.0053
 Tertile 2 (6~8/6~9)0.0250.177-0.322~0.371.8889-0.2030.205-0.606~0.199.3228
 Tertile 3 (8~12/9~12)Ref.   Ref.   
Child's K-CBCL
 Tertile 1 (0~5/0~5)-0.1140.181-0.469~0.242.53090.1880.210-0.223~0.598.3704
 Tertile 2 (5~12/5~13)-0.0590.193-0.437~0.318.75790.3200.221-0.114~0.753.1486
 Tertile 3 (12~/13~)Ref.   Ref.   
  1. Abbreviations: CESD (The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), EHDI (Equivalized Household Disposable Income), AUDIT (Alcohol Usage Disorder Identification Test), RSS (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), GPA (Grade Point Average), K-CBCL (Korean Child Behavior Checklist)
  2. 1Proportion of private education cost is defined as: (private education cost/equivalized household disposable income)*100
  3. 2The unit of EHDI is 10,000 which is about $8.83 at 2015
  4. In the parentheses, the first part is the father’s actual data range and the second part is the mother’s