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Table 2 Associations between knowledge of TB and avoidance behavior and stigmatizing attitudes toward TB. Survey-weighted odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals), after adjusting for clinical and demographic factors, including region of Brazil, and stratified by municipality

From: Knowledge and stigma of latent tuberculosis infection in Brazil: implications for tuberculosis prevention strategies

CharacteristicAvoidance Behavior Stigmatizing Attitudes
Avoid ContactcAny avoidancedCommunity avoidanceeShould Feel AshamedDeserve Illness
TB symptom knowledge (vs. none)
 Cough/fever/chest pain only1.57 (0.88, 2.77)1.58 (0.91, 2.74)1.72 (1.00, 2.95)0.82 (0.42, 1.61)0.99 (0.46, 2.12)
 Weight loss/night sweats only1.57 (0.65, 3.81)1.97 (0.74, 5.2)2.42 (1.13, 5.20)0.61 (0.21, 1.77)0.32 (0.09, 1.11)
 Cough/fever/chest pain and weight loss/night sweats2.83 (1.61, 4.95)2.19 (1.28, 3.74)1.89 (1.12, 3.17)1.71 (0.97, 3.02)1.20 (0.59, 2.46)
Knows TB may be latent1.13 (0.78, 1.62)1.01 (0.67, 1.54)1.03 (0.75, 1.42)2.13 (1.25, 3.63)1.82 (1.15, 2.89)
Political knowledge (per unit increase)0.79 (0.67, 0.93)0.93 (0.75, 1.15)1.11 (0.91, 1.34)0.67 (0.52, 0.86)0.75 (0.59, 0.94)
Age (vs. 40 years)a
 200.99 (0.64, 1.54)0.93 (0.57, 1.54)0.87 (0.59, 1.28)1.05 (0.62, 1.80)1.90 (1.23, 2.95)
 300.78 (0.58, 1.05)0.85 (0.61, 1.18)0.82 (0.60, 1.11)0.84 (0.56, 1.24)1.08 (0.72, 1.62)
 501.30 (1.03, 1.65)1.10 (0.84, 1.44)0.99 (0.78, 1.26)1.19 (0.86, 1.65)1.32 (0.91, 1.92)
 601.38 (0.96, 1.98)0.97 (0.61, 1.53)0.68 (0.44, 1.06)1.17 (0.73, 1.89)2.09 (1.28, 3.41)
Female Gender (vs. Male)0.70 (0.51, 0.97)0.94 (0.56, 1.55)1.15 (0.83, 1.60)0.76 (0.48, 1.20)0.86 (0.53, 1.41)
Skin tone (per 1-unit increase)0.91 (0.83, 1.00)0.95 (0.85, 1.06)0.99 (0.90, 1.09)1.08 (0.97, 1.22)1.04 (0.91, 1.18)
Urban residence1.42 (0.75, 2.66)0.79 (0.37, 1.69)2.35 (1.50, 3.68)1.01 (0.56, 1.83)0.87 (0.48, 1.57)
Family Income (per quintile increase)1.07 (0.93, 1.23)1.12 (0.95, 1.33)1.04 (0.90, 1.20)0.84 (0.69, 1.02)0.97 (0.82, 1.16)
Education (per level)b1.09 (0.79, 1.50)0.77 (0.45, 1.29)1.43 (0.99, 2.07)0.56 (0.36, 0.87)0.60 (0.37, 0.96)
Region (vs. Southeast)
 North1.10 (0.71, 1.70)0.90 (0.55, 1.50)1.21 (0.79, 1.86)2.29 (1.22, 4.32)2.24 (1.19, 4.25)
 Northeast1.16 (0.73, 1.85)0.90 (0.54, 1.50)0.95 (0.62, 1.46)1.32 (0.68, 2.56)1.72 (0.95, 3.09)
 South1.49 (0.95, 2.34)0.65 (0.36, 1.19)1.09 (0.64, 1.88)0.95 (0.40, 2.24)1.08 (0.55, 2.10)
 Central-West1.22 (0.78, 1.93)1.92 (0.96, 3.87)1.17 (0.65, 2.11)1.64 (0.83, 3.24)1.27 (0.63, 2.55)
  1. Bold estimates are statistically significant (p < 0.05)
  2. aAge was modeled using a restricted cubic spline with 4 knots. The median age of the study population was 37 years and the mean age was 38.6, so 40 years (57th percentile) was used as a reference for ease of interpretation
  3. bPer increase in level from none, to primary, to secondary, to post-secondary
  4. cResponse of “agree” to the following statement: If I were on public transport, I would not want to sit next to someone with tuberculosis"
  5. dResponse of “agree” to at least one of the following statements: 1) it is important to avoid people who have tuberculosis; 2) if I were on public transport, I would not want to sit next to someone with tuberculosis; 3) If a person were diagnosed with tuberculosis, and shared that information with members of the community, people would avoid contact, even if it means being unfriendly; 4) If a person were diagnosed with tuberculosis, and shared that information with members of the community, people would avoid the person, but be friendly as long as contact was necessary
  6. e Response of “people would avoid contact, even if it means being unfriendly” or “people would avoid the person, but be friendly as long as contact was necessary” to the following statement: if a person were diagnosed with tuberculosis, and shared that information with members of the community