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Table 8 Confounder identification

From: Assessing the effects of maternal HIV infection on pregnancy outcomes using cross-sectional data in Malawi

Variable Outcome Exposure  
  Birth weight (p-value) Perinatal death(p-value) HIV status (p-value)
Age of a mother <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Region NA 0.006 <0.001
Residence 0.016 0.946 <0.001
Education 0.011 0.43 0.012
Size of child at birth <0.001 0.06 0.31
Ever had terminated pregnancy 0.845 <0.001 0.007
Anaemia <0.001 0.90 <0.001
Marital status NA NA <0.001
place of delivery NA 0.249 0.97
Wealth 0.97 0.286 0.008
(a) Confounders that influence HIV and the outcomes for the 2010 MDHS
  Birth weight (p-value) Perinatal death(p-value) HIV status (p-value)
Age of a mother <0.001 0.226 <0.001
Region 0.133 0.35 <0.001
Residence 0.49 0.126 <0.001
Education 0.096 0.716 <0.001
BMI 0.017 NA 0.577
Size of child at birth <0.001 <0.001 0.304
Ever had terminated pregnancy 0.730 <0.001 0.001
Anaemia 0.21 0.50 <0.001
Marital status NA NA <0.001
Place of delivery NA 0.26 0.41
Wealth 0.001 0.287 0.017
(b) Confounders that influence HIV and the outcomes for the 2015-16 MDHS
  1. Confounder Identification A verification of the variables was done by fitting a linear regression model for the effect of each confounder on child birth weight and did a crosstabulation using Pearsons Chi-square test for the effect of the confounders on perinatal mortality. We also checked the association between the identified variables and mothers HIV-infection status. Variables that were not known to influence either HIV status or birth weight or perinatal death were labelled as “not applicable”