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Table 1 Distribution of confounders between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers before matching for MDHS 2010 and 2015-16

From: Assessing the effects of maternal HIV infection on pregnancy outcomes using cross-sectional data in Malawi

CharacteristicHIV status (2010)HIV Status(2015)
 HIV-infected(%)HIV-uninfected(%)p-valueHIV-infected(%)HIV-uninfected(%)p-value
Overall316(11.0)2681(89.0) 234(9.0)2456(91.0) 
Residence      
Urban68(21.5)320(11.9) 66(28.2)409(16.7) 
Rural248(78.5)2361(88.1)<0.001168(71.8)2047(83.4)<0.001
Region      
Northern40(12.7)581(21.7) 30(12.8)481(19.6) 
Central76(24.1)933(34.8) 49(20.9)887(36.1) 
Southern200(63.3)1167(43.5)<0.001155(66.2)1088(44.3)<0.001
Age      
15-2472(22.8)983(36.7) 62(26.5)1086(44.2) 
25-34179(56.7)1198(44.7) 105(44.9)1025(41.7) 
35 above65(20.6)500(18.7)<0.00167(28.6)345(14.1)<0.001
Wealth      
Poor103(32.6)1004(37.5) 90(38.5)1054(42.9) 
Middle60(19.0)609(22.7) 39(16.7)478(19.5) 
Rich153(48.4)1068(39.8)0.013105(44.9)924(37.6)0.09
Education      
None46(14.6)322(12.0) 25(10.7)240(9.8) 
Primary196(62.0)1829(68.2) 144(61.5)1582(64.4) 
Secondary70(22.2)508(19.0) 62(26.5)585(23.8) 
Tertiary4(1.2)22(0.8)0.1543(1.3)49(2.0)0.647
Anaemia      
No190(61.3)1939(74.2) 116(49.6)1757(71.6) 
Yes120(38.7)675(25.8)<0.001118(50.4)690(28.5)<0.001
Ever terminated pregnancy      
No264(83.5)2376(88.6) 196(83.8)2235(91) 
Yes52(16.5)304(11.3)0.02838(16.2)221(9.0)<0.001
Marital Status      
Never married10(3.2)78(2.9) 5(2.0)119(4.9) 
Married192(60.8)2050(76.5) 167(71.4)1928(78.5) 
Living together30(9.5)282(10.5) 13(5.6)164(6.7) 
Widowed20(6.3)39(1.5) 10(4.3)24(1.0) 
Divorced39(12.3)117(4.4) 18(7.7)93(3.8) 
Not Living together25(7.9)115(4.3)<0.00121(9.0)128(5.2)<0.001
Place of delivery      
Home13(4.4)102(4.1) 5(2.3)32(1.4) 
Government Hosp.247(83.5)2047(82.7) 200(90.9)2051(88.4) 
Private8(2.7)71(2.9) 4(1.8)58(2.5) 
Christian/Mission Hosp.28(9.5)255(10.3)0.9611(5.0)180(7.8)0.301
Last birth C/section      
No294(93.0)2520(94) 215(92.3)3263(92.6) 
Yes21(6.7)158(5.9)0.5518(7.7)180(7.4)0.675