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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of severe HFMD children patients

From: Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) among children: a 6-year population-based study

  Fatal cases
N2 = 44
Survivors
N1 = 415
Total
N = 459
OR (95%CI)
Gender
Male 22 (50.0) 273 (65.8) 295 (64.3) 0.52 (0.28–0.97)*
Female 22 (50.0) 142 (34.2) 164 (35.7) Referent
Age
  ≤ 1 4 (9.1) 47 (11.3) 51 (11.1) 0.78 (0.27–2.29)
1~ 36 (81.8) 259 (62.4) 295 (64.3) 2.71 (1.23–5.98)**
3~ 3 (6.8) 97 (23.4) 100 (21.8) 0.24 (0.07–0.79)*
  > 5 1 (2.3) 12 (2.9) 13 (2.8) Referent
Hosting Classification
Scatter childrena 36 (81.8) 333 (80.2) 369 (80.4) 1.11 (0.50–2.47)
Childcareb 8 (18.2) 75 (18.1) 83 (18.1) 1.01 (0.45–2.26)
In schoolc 0 (0.0) 3 (0.7) 3 (0.7)
Others 0 (0.0) 4 (1.0) 4 (0.9)
Identification of enterovirus
 EV71 30 (68.2) 216 (52.0) 246 (53.6) 1.97 (1.02–3.83)*
 Cox A16 0 (0.0) 14 (3.4) 14 (3.1)
 Other enterovirus 4 (9.1) 66 (15.9) 70 (15.3) 0.53 (0.18–1.53)
 Negative 10 (22.7) 119 (28.7) 129 (28.1) 0.73 (0.35–1.53)
Onset season
Winter 9 (20.5) 34 (8.2) 43 (9.4) 2.88 (1.28–6.49)*
Autumn 3 (6.8) 37 (8.9) 40 (8.7) 0.75 (0.22–2.53)
Summer 12 (27.3) 173 (41.7) 185 (40.3) 0.53 (0.26–1.05)
Spring 20 (45.5) 171 (37.3) 191 (41.6) 1.19 (0.64–2.22)
Family members, > 3 28 (63.6) 299 (72.0) 327 (71.2) 0.68 (0.35–1.30)
Children in home, > 1 37 (84.1) 275 (66.3) 312 (68.0) 2.69 (1.17–6.19)*
Caregivers
Parents 21 (47.7) 285 (68.7) 306 (66.7) 0.42 (0.22–0.78)*
Grandparents 23 (52.3) 130 (31.3) 153 (33.3) Referent
Caregivers’ education
  > 9 y 5 (11.4) 172 (41.4) 177 (38.6) 0.18 (0.07–0.47)**
0–9 y 39 (88.6) 243 (58.6) 282 (61.5) Referent
Neighborhood children also suffer from HFMD disease 1 (2.3) 50 (12.0) 51 (11.1) 0.14 (0.02–1.01)*
  1. Note:OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval. *P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01
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