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Table 2 Summary of published studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria for risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder among workers

From: Occupational post-traumatic stress disorder: an updated systematic review

First author.YearCountryStudy designTraumaParticipantsTrauma assessmentEstimate of risk
Fitch, T2015BangladeshCross-sectionalFactory building collapse181 survivors at 1 year post factory collapsePCL-S ≥ 50(OR, 95% CI)
Married (3.2, 1.3–8.0),
More than 70 working hours/week (2.4, 1.1–5.3),
Higher job positions (2.6, 1.2–5.6),
Concussion injury (3.7, 1.4–9.8)
James, L2018USACross-sectionalChronic exposure to critical incidents in workplace355 prison workersPCL for DSM-5(Regression coefficients β, p-value)
1) Risk factor
Being seriously injured (3.13, < 0.01),
Encountering an inmate recently sexually assaulted (1.29, < 0.01),
Being often placed in unnecessary danger (1.79, < 0.01),
Being often unclear about what is expected of them (1.05, < 0.01).
2) Protective factor
Being happy with job assignments (−1.49, < 0.01),
Having positive relationships with supervisors (− 1.39, < 0.01),
Having positive relationships with co-workers (− 1.46, < 0.01).
Shah, R2017CanadaLongitudinalWorkplace traumatic event141 urban public transit employeesSCID-IFactors which were significantly associated with PTSD severity (Regression coefficients β, p-value) Severity of depression (0.66, 0.01),
Female (3.31, 0.02),
Ethnicity (13.33, 0.01),
Workplace related stress (− 0.30, 0.02).
Geronazzo-Alman, L2017USACross-sectionalCumulative exposure to work-related traumatic events209 first respondersPCL-C(Adjusted OR, 95% CI)
Frequency of exposure (2.0, 1.2–3.3),
Variety of exposure (2.8, 1.5–5.5),
Nomothetic severity of exposure (2.9, 1.5–5.7),
Idiographic severity of exposure (5.2, 2.4–11.3).
Schenk, EJ2017ChinaCross-sectionalWorking after earthquake337 medical rescue workers who performed within the first 3 months of the eventIES-R ≥ 33(Adjusted OR, 95% CI)
Injured during rescue work (2.7, 1.4–5.1),
Experienced a water shortage (3.0, 1.4–6.6),
Disconnected from family or friends during rescue work (1.7, 0.8–3.7).
Bogaerts, S2013NetherlandsCross-sectionalIntracolleague aggression174 prison workersThe Self-Rating Inventory for PTSDDegree of type D personality (F = 21.9, p < 0.01)
Spence Laschinger, HK2015CanadaCross-sectionalWorkplace bullying874 nurses (244 new graduate nurses and 630 experienced nurses)Primary care PTSD screen(Regression coefficients β, p-value)
1) Risk factor: workplace bullying
among new graduate nurses (0.51, < 0.01),
among experienced nurses (0.52, < 0.01)
2) Protective factor: psychological capital
among new graduate nurses (−0.25, < 0.01)
among experienced nurses (− 0.20, < 0.01)
Taymur, I2014TurkeyLongitudinalIndustrial Explosion157 workers nearby the explosion buildingCAPSFactors showing significant differences using Pearson’ chi-squared test
1) After 1 month
History of psychiatric disorder, physical injury, acquaintances among the dead/injured, being involved in the incident, and having seen dead people
2) After 6 months: physical injury,
acquaintances among the dead/ injured, being involved in the incident
Chatzea, VE2018GreeceCross-sectionalWorking during the European refugee crisis217 rescue workersPCL-C ≥ 50(Adjusted OR, 95% CI)
Female (2.1, 1.0–3.3),
Single/divorced/widower (3.4, 2.2–4.6),
Age (1.9, 1.8–2.1),
Operation periods (2.1, 1.9–2.3),
Duration of shifts (3.1, 2.5–3.7),
Handling dead adults (2.8, 2.6–3.0),
Handing dead children (2.9, 2.8–3.0).
Diene, E2012FranceCross-sectionalIndustrial factory explosion13,129 economically
active persons in the immediate and peripheral area of industrial disaster
IES-R ≥ 33(Adjusted OR, 95% CI)
1) Men
Employees (4.3, 2.3–7.8),
Factory workers/laborers (3.7, 1.8–7.6),
Temporary layoff (2.6, 1.5–4.5),
Unusable workplace (1.8, 1.1–2.8),
Attendance at emergency department (4.1; 2.8–6.1),
< 1.7 km to explosion site (3.6, 1.6–8.1),
≥50 years old (2.8, 1.3–5.9)
2) Women
Artisan (2.7, 1.3–5.7),
Employees/factory workers/laborers (2.2, 1.4–3.5),
Attendance at emergency department (3.0, 2.2–4.4),
Reporting of an occupational accident (1.5, 1.1–2.2),
< 1.7 km to explosion site (3.0, 1.2–7.3), ≥50 years old (1.9, 1.1–3.1)
Sifaki-Pistolla, D.2017GreeceCross-sectionalWorking during the European refugee crisis217 rescue workersPCL-C ≥ 50(Adjusted OR, 95% CI)
Female (2.2, 1.1–3.4),
Single/divorced/widower (3.5, 2.3–4.7),
> 40 years old (3.8, 2.5–5.1),
> 14 operation days (2.3, 1.4–3.2),
> 4 shift hours/day (3.9, 3.1–4.7),
Handling over 6 dead refugees (3.4, 2.3–4.5),
Handling dead children (3.2, 1.9–4.4).
Song, J. Y.2018KoreaCross-sectionalChemical release disasters237 workers in industrial complexIES-R ≥ 24(Adjusted OR, 95% CI)
Alcohol dependence (3.1, 1.3–7.6),
Psychiatric symptom at the time of the accident (5.3, 1.8–15.6)
Workers with high perceived stress scale scores (8.7, 2.3–33.2)
Noda, Y.2018JapanCross-sectionalWorking after earthquake220 rescue workersIES-R ≥ 24(Coefficients β, p-value)
1) Higher level of education
Intrusion (−0.17, 0.02)
Avoidance (− 0.18, 0.03)
Hyperarousal (− 0.18, 0.02)
2) Resilience
Intrusion (− 0.18, 0.02)
Avoidance (− 0.16, 0.02)
Hyperarousal (− 0.26, < 0.01)
McCanlies, EC.2014USACross-sectionalWorking after hurricane114 police officersPCL-C(Coefficients β, p-value)
1) Resilience (− 0.65, < 0.01)
2) Satisfaction with life (− 0.55, < 0.01)
3) Gratitude (− 0.67, < 0.01)
4) Post-traumatic growth (0.09, 0.55)
  1. PCL-S: PTSD Checklist-Specific Version
  2. SCID-I: Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I Disorder
  3. IES-R: Impact of Event Scale-Revised
  4. PCL-C: PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version
  5. OR: Odds ratio
  6. 95% CI: 95% confidence interval