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Table 2 Distribution (prevalence, prevalence ratio and 95% CI) of stunting and overweight in children under five years of age, according to categories of socioeconomic and demographic variables by survey year (1992, 2005 and 2015). Alagoas, Northeast Brazil

From: Stunting and overweight among children in Northeast Brazil: prevalence, trends (1992-2005-2015) and associated risk factors from repeated cross-sectional surveys

Variable / CategorySample distribution (%)P-value (χ2)Stunting (%)Overweight (%)
1992200520151992 Ref.2005 RP (95% CI)2015 RP (95% CI)1992 Ref.2005 RP (95% CI)2015 RP (95% CI)
Sex
 Male50.448.849.70.70423.4 Ref.13.1 0.56 (0.43–0.71)4.2 0.18 (0.12–0.28)9.1 Ref.7.4 0.81 (0.56–1.17)15.6 1.70 (1.22–2.36)
 Female49.651.250.321.8 Ref.9.4 0.43 (0.32–0.57)2.2 0.10 (0.06–0.19)4.7 Ref.7.6 1.62 (1.04–2.51)14.2 3.04 (2.01–4.61)
     p = 0.488p = 0.038p = 0.076p = 0.002p = 0.906p = 0.558
Age group (months)
 ≤ 2441.449.643.9< 0.00114.5 Ref.11.3 0.78 (0.57–1.05)4.6 0.31 (0.20–0.51)8.1 Ref.8.4 1.04 (0.70–1.54)17.1 2.10 (1.46–3.03)
 >  2458.650.456.128.3 Ref.11.1 0.39 (0.30–0.50)2.2 0.08 (0.04–0.14)6.1 Ref.6.5 1.10 (0.71–1.60)13.2 2.17 (1.51–3.10)
     p < 0.001p = 0.887p = 0.032p = 0.178p = 0.178p = 0.092
Low birth weight (<  2500 g)
 Yes9.76.36.20.00628.3 Ref.18.3 0.65 (0.36–1.17)8.6 0.30 (0.12–0.76)4.95 Ref.3.33 0.67 (0.12–3.60)8.62 1.74 (0.48–6.32)
 No90.393.793.815.0 Ref.10.3 0.69 (0.54–0.88)2.8 0.18 (0.12–0.28)7.67 Ref.7.98 1.04 (0.76–1.43)15.15 1.98 (1.47–2.66)
     p = 0.003p = 0.027p = 0.013p = 0.381p = 0.188p = 0.175
High birth weight (≥ 4000 g)
 Yes14.18.67.2< 0.00111.1 Ref.7.4 0.66 (0.28–1.56)0.0 nc9.9 Ref.16.3 1.65 (0.80–3.39)27.3 2.75 (1.38–5.50)
 No85.991.492.817.2 Ref.11.1 0.64 (0.51–0.82)3.4 0.19 (0.13–0.29)7.0 Ref.6.9 0.98 (0.69–1.39)13.8 1.97 (1.43–2.71)
     p = 0.105p = 0.233p = ncp = 0.282p = 0.0006p = 0.003
Mother with ≤ 2 children
 Yes40.568.169.5< 0.00112.8 Ref.8.3 0.64 (0.46–0.91)2.7 0.21 (0.13–0.35)8.9 Ref.8.5 0.96 (0.65–1.41)15.0 1.69 (1.20–2.39)
 No59.531.930.528.8 Ref.15.1 0.52 (0.39–0.71)4.8 0.17 (0.10–0.28)5.79 Ref.5.69 0.98 (0.57–1.70)14.33 2.47 (1.64–3.72)
     p < 0.001p = 0.002p = 0.098p = 0.045p = 0.124p = 0.792
Low maternal schooling (years of study ≤ 4)
 Yes69.346.920.4< 0.00129.3 Ref.15.8 0.54 (0.43–0.67)7.0 0.24 (0.14–0.41)6.4 Ref.5.1 0.80 (0.51–1.26)13.0 2.04 (1.30–3.22)
 No30.753.179.67. 2 Ref.7.0 0.97 (0.60–1.54)2.6 0.36 (0.20–0.65)8.0 Ref.10.0 1.25 (0.82–1.92)15.5 1.95 (1.31–2.92)
     p < 0.001p < 0.001p = 0.004p = 0.323p = 0.002p = 0.400
Maternal age group (years)
 ≤ 20.014.118.17.2< 0.00116.3 Ref.9.9 0.61 (0.36–1.03)6.1 0.37 (0.13–1.02)6.7 Ref.7.4 1.10 (0.52–2.31)12.1 1.80 (0.76–4.31)
 20.1–39.976.575.482.422.1 Ref.11.0 0.50 (0.40–0.62)3.3 0.15 (0.10–0.22)7.2 Ref.7.8 1.09 (0.79–1.50)15.0 2.10 (1.57–2.81)
 ≥ 40.09.46.510.432.1 Ref.16.7 0.52 (0.29–0.94)3.2 0.10 (0.03–0.31)5.3 Ref.4.3 0.82 (0.21–3.24)16.0 3.03 (1.21–7.60)
     p = 0.007p = 0.277p = 0.502p = 0.758p = 0.550p = 0.781
Area of residence
 Urban57.962.974.2< 0.00118.2 Ref.9.6 0.53 (0.41–0.68)3.1 0. 17 (0. 11–0.27)7.5 Ref.8.2 1.09 (0.77–1.54)14.8 1.97 (1.42–2.73)
 Rural42.137.125.828.7 Ref.13.8 0.48 (0.36–0.64)3.5 0.12 (0.06–0.24)6.1 Ref.6.2 1.02 (0.62–1.68)15.3 2.49 (1.63–3.82)
     p < 0.001p = 0.026p = 0.764p = 0.345p = 0.226p = 0.841
Number of people in the household
 ≤ 429.043.458.1< 0.00116.5 Ref.9.4 0.57 (0.40–0.80)2.4 0.15 (0.08–0.26)7.3 Ref.7.9 1.08 (0.68–1.73)15.9 2.16 (1.41–3.31)
 >  471.056.641.924.9 Ref.12.6 0.50 (0.40–0.63)4.4 0.17 (0.11–0.28)6.6 Ref.7.1 1.08 (0.75–1.55)13.5 2.05 (1.44–2.91)
     p = 0.002p = 0.064p = 0.095p = 0.655p = 0.571p = 0.306