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Table 2 Adjusted Odds Ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for smoking outcome measures of 1087 people living with HIV (PLWH) and 2218 subjects from the Italian general population

From: Smoking habits in HIV-infected people compared with the general population in Italy: a cross-sectional study

VARIABLES Current smoking Quitting Heavy smoking
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Sex
Male 1.00 1.00 1.00
Female 0.64 *** 1.01 0.44 ***
(0.53–0.77) (0.78–1.31) (0.31–0.6)
Age group, years
 <  25 0.63 0.59 0.29
(0.3–1.29) (0.15–2.26) (0.06–1.3)
 25–34 1.02 0.76 0.60 **
(0.77–1.35) (0.52–1.12) (0.39–0.94)
 35–44 0.74 *** 1.05 0.51 ****
(0.6–0.92) (0.79–1.4) (0.36–0.72)
 45–54 1.00 1.00 1.00
 55–64 0.78 ** 1.52 *** 0.87
(0.62–0.98) (1.15–2.00) (0.63–1.2
 > = 65 0.28 *** 3.82 *** 0.28 ***
(0.18–0.43) (2.42–6.05) (0.14–0.54)
Marital status
Single 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Stable relationship 0.84 * 1.39 ** 1.01
(0.69–1.02) (1.08–1.78) (0.76–1.35)
 Separated/divorced 1.18 1.11 1.37
(0.88–1.56) (0.77–1.59) (0.9–2.08)
 Widowed 1.08 1.3 2.7 ***
(0.64–1.82) (0.68–2.49) (1.39–5.24)
Education
 College degree 1.00 1.00 1.00
 High school graduation 1.09 1.01 1.61 ***
(0.87–1.35) (0.76–1.35) (1.12–2.32)
 Elementary or lower 1.37 *** 0.79 2.29 ***
(1.09–1.73) (0.58–1.07) (1.57–3.34)
Citizenship
 Italian 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Foreign 0.67 *** 0.51 *** 0.68
(0.5–0.91) (0.32–0.82) (0.41–1.12)
Comorbidity
 No diabetes 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Diabetes 1.14 0.95 1.49 *
(0.76–1.7) (0.59–1.53) (0.88–2.5)
 No hypertension 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Hypertension 0.9 1.28 * 0.84
(0.7–1.15) (0.95–1.71) (0.59–1.19)
 No severe obesity 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Severe obesity 0.65 ** 1.61 ** 0.69
(0.46–0.92) (1.06–2.44) (0.38–1.26)
 No alcohol abuse 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Alcohol Abuse 0.89 0.97 0.97
(0.58–1.36) (0.54–1.71) (0.53–1.77)
Region
 Northern Italy 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Central Italy 0.89 1.20 0.87
(0.73–1.07) (0.95–1.53) (0.64–1.18)
 Southern Italy 1.15 0.58 *** 1.67 ***
(0.93–1.41) (0.44–0.77) (1.23–2.25)
Group
 General population 1.00 1.00 1.00
PLWH 3.11 *** 0.36 *** 4.84 ***
(2.62–3.71) (0.29–0.46) (3.74–6.27)
  1. Note: OR Odds ratio; CI Confidence interval; Estimates were controlled for the entire set of covariates (age, gender, ethnic origin, educational level, marital status, region of residence, alcohol abuse, hypertension, diabetes, and extreme obesity). Estimates were performed by pooling together the PLWH and the general population samples
  2. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001