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Table 2 Adjusted Odds Ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for smoking outcome measures of 1087 people living with HIV (PLWH) and 2218 subjects from the Italian general population

From: Smoking habits in HIV-infected people compared with the general population in Italy: a cross-sectional study

VARIABLESCurrent smokingQuittingHeavy smoking
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Sex
Male1.001.001.00
Female0.64 ***1.010.44 ***
(0.53–0.77)(0.78–1.31)(0.31–0.6)
Age group, years
 <  250.630.590.29
(0.3–1.29)(0.15–2.26)(0.06–1.3)
 25–341.020.760.60 **
(0.77–1.35)(0.52–1.12)(0.39–0.94)
 35–440.74 ***1.050.51 ****
(0.6–0.92)(0.79–1.4)(0.36–0.72)
 45–541.001.001.00
 55–640.78 **1.52 ***0.87
(0.62–0.98)(1.15–2.00)(0.63–1.2
 > = 650.28 ***3.82 ***0.28 ***
(0.18–0.43)(2.42–6.05)(0.14–0.54)
Marital status
Single1.001.001.00
 Stable relationship0.84 *1.39 **1.01
(0.69–1.02)(1.08–1.78)(0.76–1.35)
 Separated/divorced1.181.111.37
(0.88–1.56)(0.77–1.59)(0.9–2.08)
 Widowed1.081.32.7 ***
(0.64–1.82)(0.68–2.49)(1.39–5.24)
Education
 College degree1.001.001.00
 High school graduation1.091.011.61 ***
(0.87–1.35)(0.76–1.35)(1.12–2.32)
 Elementary or lower1.37 ***0.792.29 ***
(1.09–1.73)(0.58–1.07)(1.57–3.34)
Citizenship
 Italian1.001.001.00
 Foreign0.67 ***0.51 ***0.68
(0.5–0.91)(0.32–0.82)(0.41–1.12)
Comorbidity
 No diabetes1.001.001.00
 Diabetes1.140.951.49 *
(0.76–1.7)(0.59–1.53)(0.88–2.5)
 No hypertension1.001.001.00
 Hypertension0.91.28 *0.84
(0.7–1.15)(0.95–1.71)(0.59–1.19)
 No severe obesity1.001.001.00
 Severe obesity0.65 **1.61 **0.69
(0.46–0.92)(1.06–2.44)(0.38–1.26)
 No alcohol abuse1.001.001.00
 Alcohol Abuse0.890.970.97
(0.58–1.36)(0.54–1.71)(0.53–1.77)
Region
 Northern Italy1.001.001.00
 Central Italy0.891.200.87
(0.73–1.07)(0.95–1.53)(0.64–1.18)
 Southern Italy1.150.58 ***1.67 ***
(0.93–1.41)(0.44–0.77)(1.23–2.25)
Group
 General population1.001.001.00
PLWH3.11 ***0.36 ***4.84 ***
(2.62–3.71)(0.29–0.46)(3.74–6.27)
  1. Note: OR Odds ratio; CI Confidence interval; Estimates were controlled for the entire set of covariates (age, gender, ethnic origin, educational level, marital status, region of residence, alcohol abuse, hypertension, diabetes, and extreme obesity). Estimates were performed by pooling together the PLWH and the general population samples
  2. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
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