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Table 1 Characteristics of the included articles

From: Utilization of public health care by people with private health insurance: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, year of publication Full Report or Abstract Country Study Design Study Population Target Exposure Group Target Control Group (s) Target Outcome(s)
Abougergi et al. [14] 2019 Full report The United States Retrospective cohort study Patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage Private insurance Nondisabled public insurance Inpatient service (LOS)
Abraham et al. [15] 2014 Full report The United States Retrospective cohort study The Affordable Care Act (ACA) target population Private insurance Public insurance and no insurance Outpatient service (ED visit and outpatient visit) and inpatient service (rate of hospitalization)
Abraham et al. [16] 2017 Abstract India Retrospective cohort study Patients with breast, oral and ovarian cancer Private insurance No insurance and two kinds of public insurance Outpatient service (outpatient visits)
Abraham et al. [17] 2017 Abstract India Retrospective cohort study Patients with breast cancer Private insurance No insurance and public insurance Inpatient service (LOS)
Araujo et al. [18] 2017 Full report Brazil Retrospective case control study Adults ≥18 years of age. Private health insurance No private insurance Outpatient service (outpatient visits) and inpatient services (rate of hospitalization)
Bhandari et al. [19] 2018 Abstract The United States Retrospective cohort study Adults aged 18–64 years Commercial insurance (qualified health plans, QHPs) Public insurance (Medicaid) Outpatient service (ED visit and outpatient visit) and inpatient service (rate of hospitalization)
Cunningham et al. [20] 2018 Full text The United States Retrospective cohort study Population of California counties Private insurance No insurance and public insurance Outpatient service (outpatient visits) and inpatient services (rate of hospitalization)
Dabbous et al. [21] 2014 Abstract The United States Retrospective cohort study Adult diabetic patients Private insurance No insurance and public insurance Outpatient service (outpatient visits)
Fontenelle et al. [22] 2018 Full report Brazil Retrospective cohort study Household survey population Private health insurance No insurance coverage Outpatient service (outpatient visits)
Gandhi et al. [23] 2014 Full report The United States Retrospective case control study Patients with non-emergency visits Private health insurance No insurance and public insurance (Medicare and Medicaid) Outpatient service (outpatient visits)
Ginde et al. [24] 2012 Full report The United States Cross-sectional household interview survey noninstitutionalized US civilian population Private insurance Public insurance (Medicare and Medicaid) Outpatient service (ED visit)
Halpern et al. [25] 2011 Full report The United States Retrospective cohort study Individuals with epilepsy Private insurance No insurance and public insurance (Medicare and Medicaid) Outpatient service (ED visit and outpatient visit) and inpatient service (inpatient LOS and rate of hospitalization)
Hasegawa et al. [26] 2014 Full report The United States Retrospective case control study Patients ages 18 to 54 years with acute asthma Private health insurance No health insurance and public health insurance Outpatient service (ED visit)
Henke et al. [27] 2013 Full report The United States Retrospective cohort study Inpatient patients Private health insurance Public insurance (Medicare) Inpatient service (LOS)
Hullegie et al. [28] 2010 Full report Germany Retrospective cohort study West German individuals Private insurance Public insurance Outpatient service (outpatient visit) and inpatient service (inpatient LOS)
Jeon et al. [29] 2013 Full report South Korea Retrospective cohort study Adults participating in Korea Health Panel Survey (KHPS) Private insurance No private insurance Outpatient service (outpatient visit) and inpatient service (inpatient LOS and rate of hospitalization)
Leach et al. [30] 2012 Full report Australia Retrospective cohort study Participants aged 15–93 years old Private health insurance No insurance Outpatient service (outpatient visit)
Mandsager et al. [31] 2015 Full report The United States Retrospective cohort study Health center patients Private insurance Public insurance Outpatient service (outpatient visit)
Pomerantz et al. [32] 2013 Abstract Brazil Retrospective cohort study Survey adults in Brazil Private insurance Public insurance Outpatient service (ED visits) and inpatient service (inpatient LOS and rate of hospitalization)
Rice et al. [33] 2014 Full report The United States Retrospective cohort study Diabetic Patients private/employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) Public insurance (Medicaid) Outpatient service (ED visits) and inpatient service (inpatient LOS)
Sarkar et al. [34] 2017 Full report The United States Retrospective cohort study Population of children with special health care needs (CSHCN) in Ohio Private insurance Public insurance (Medicaid) Outpatient service (ED visits) and inpatient service (rate of hospitalization)
Shmueli et al. [35] 2014 Full report Australia Retrospective cohort study Inpatients of the public New South Wales hospitals Private insurance Public insurance Inpatient service (inpatient LOS)
Terveen et al. [36] 2015 Abstract The United States Retrospective cohort study Pediatric ophthalmic inpatients Private insurance Public insurance (Medicaid) Inpatient service (inpatient LOS)
Yoshioka et al. [37] 2010 Full report Japan Retrospective cohort study Community-dwelling frail elderly people Private insurance provided by private care management agencies Public insurance provided by social welfare corporations or public agencies) Outpatient service (outpatient visit)
You et al. [38] 2018 Full report South Korea Retrospective cohort study Diabetes outpatients Supplementary private health insurance (SPHI) Without SPHI Outpatient service (outpatient visits) and inpatient services (rate of hospitalization)
Young et al. [39] 2009 Full report The United States Retrospective cohort study Children with autism Private insurance Public insurance (Medicaid) Outpatient service (outpatient visits)
  1. Abbreviations: LOS length of stay, ED emergency department