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Table 6 Associations between changes in risk perception and increase in condom use between surveys at different time periods, Manicaland, Zimbabwe, 2003–2013

From: Relationships between changes in HIV risk perception and condom use in East Zimbabwe 2003–2013: population-based longitudinal analyses

  Both sexes combined Males Females
Outcome: Increase in condom use   Model 1 Model 2   Model 1 Model 2   Model 1 Model 2
Variable n (%) aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) n (%) aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) n (%) aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
Period between 2003 and 2005 and 2006–2008
 Change in risk perception
  No change 1485 (71.3) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 532 (82.4) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 953 (66.4) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
  Increase 263 (12.6) 1.89 (1.22–2.93) 1.78 (1.10–2.87) 53 (8.20) 2.65 (1.19–5.90) 2.05 (0.72–5.82) 210 (14.6) 1.71 (1.02–2.86) 1.72 (0.98–3.02)
  Decrease 334 (16.0) 1.36 (0.88–2.10) 1.23 (0.78–1.94) 61 (9.44) 2.62 (1.22–5.63) 2.63 (1.12–6.16) 273 (19.0) 1.02 (0.59–1.75) 0.99 (0.56–1.75)
Period between 2006 and 2008 and 2009–2011
 Change in risk perception
  No change 1999 (69.1) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 713 (83.2) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1286 (63.2) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
  Increase 404 (14.0) 1.42 (0.99–2.03) 1.41 (0.97–2.04) 73 (8.52) 1.30 (0.60–2.83) 1.15 (0.49–2.70) 331 (16.3) 1.50 (1.00–2.25) 1.50 (0.98–2.29)
  Decrease 490 (16.9) 1.38 (0.98–1.95) 1.49 (1.06–2.10) 71 (8.28) 1.12 (0.46–2.71) 1.00 (0.36–2.79) 419 (20.6) 1.44 (0.99–2.09) 1.66 (1.12–2.46)
Period between 2009 and 2011 and 2012–2013
 Change in risk perception
  No change 1601 (69.5) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 567 (82.1) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1034 (64.1) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
  Increase 361 (15.7) 1.31 (0.86–1.99) 1.18 (0.74–1.89) 80 (11.6) 1.65 (0.78–3.49) 1.27 (0.55–2.94) 281 (17.4) 1.14 (0.68–1.92) 1.13 (0.63–2.04)
  Decrease 341 (14.8) 1.33 (0.85–2.06) 1.18 (0.73–1.91) 44 (6.37) 2.21 (0.94–5.20) 2.10 (0.89–4.97) 297 (18.4) 1.07 (0.65–1.77) 0.98 (0.56–1.70)
  1. Values are: Sample sizes (n) and percentages (%) for changes in risk perception and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Sample: Sexually active, HIV-negative participants (15–54 years) not reporting condom use at the beginning of periods between surveys. Outcome of regressions: Increase in condom use vs. no change (continuing not using condoms). Increased and decreased risk perception was compared to no change (risk perception or no risk perception in both surveys). Estimates for other independent variables are not shown. Regressions were implemented for both sexes combined and by sex for the different time periods.
  2. Model 1: Change variables included for: Age group.
  3. Model 2: Change variables included for: Age group, marital status, educational attainment, school enrolment status, socio-economic status, STD symptoms, sexual risk, partner concurrency, HIV testing (lifetime), HIV testing (past three years).