Skip to main content

Table 4 Social challenges by incarceration status

From: Closing the (incarceration) gap: assessing the socio-economic and clinical indicators of indigenous males by lifetime incarceration status

  Ever-incarcerated
N (%)
Never- incarcerated
N (%)
Χ2 (p value) V
Ever removed from natural family
 Never removed 24,700 (82.6) 165,300 (93.0)   
 Ever removed 5200 (17.4) 12,400 (7.0) 7272.9 (<.001) .13
Unfair treatment over last 12 months
 No unfair treatment 16,900 (57.9) 117,100 (68.1)   
 Unfair treatment 12,300 (42.1) 54,900 (31.9) 2102.5 (<.001) .07
Avoided situations due to unfair treatment
 Did not avoid situations 23,300 (75.4) 161,900 (89.1)   
 Avoided situations 7600 (24.6) 19,800 (10.9) 8856.2 (<.001) .15
Experienced physical violence over past 12 months
 Did not experience physical violence 24,600 (79.6) 160,000 (88.4)   
 Experienced physical violence 6300 (20.4) 21,100 (11.7) 3570.5 (<.001) .09
Problems accessing services
 Did not have problems accessing services 19,500 (69.4) 132,400 (78.2)   
 Had problems accessing services 8600 (30.6) 37,000 (21.8) 2046.5 (<.001) .07
\