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Table 8 Health literacy based on demographic variables

From: Development and validation of a short and easy-to-use instrument for measuring health literacy: the Health Literacy Instrument for Adults (HELIA)

 Health lieracy scoreLimited health literacyAdequate health literacy 
 Mean (SD)No. (%)No. (%)Pa
Age   0.045
 18–3075.8 (13.7)23 (33.3)94 (37.0) 
 31–4280.4 (12.6)12 (17.4)78 (30.7) 
 43–5474.1 (15.0)20 (29.0)47 (18.5) 
 55–6573.0 (20.6)14 (20.3)35 (13.8) 
Gender   0.33
 Female77.5 (14.8)34 (49.3)142 (55.9) 
 Male74.9 (15.3)35 (50.7)112 (44.1) 
Education (years)   <  0.001
 1–966.8 (18.4)29 (42.0)36 (14.2) 
 10–1276.5 (12.2)24 (34.8)109 (42.9) 
 13 ≥81.1 (13.7)16 (23.2)109 (42.9) 
Employment   0.004
 Employed78.6 (12.3)16 (23.2)85 (33.5) 
 Student79.3 (12.4)5 (7.2)40 (15.7) 
 Retired77.2 (17.7)6 (8.7)23 (9.1) 
 Housewife75.0 (15.9)31 (44.9)94 (37.0) 
 Unemployed66.6 (19.4)11 (15.9)12(4.7) 
Total76.3 (15.1)69 (21.4)254 (78.6) 
  1. a Dervided from Chi-square