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Table 1 Prevalence and odds ratio for being depression by general characteristics of study population with metabolic syndrome

From: The combined effect of socioeconomic status and metabolic syndrome on depression: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)

CharacteristicsPrevalence of depression
Total (weighted %)Yes (weighted %)OR(95% CI)p-value
n = 24,102(100.0)n = 622(2.6)
Gender
 Male10,228(51.0)128(1.2)1.00<.0001
 Female13,874(49.0)494(3.2)2.80(2.30–3.51) 
Age group (years)
 19–294369(24.3)79(1.5)1.00<.0001
 30–396616(26.0)132(1.7)1.11(0.80–1.54) 
 40–496643(27.3)166(2.4)1.57(1.14–2.15) 
 50–596474(22.4)245(3.3)2.19(1.63–2.96) 
Education level
 College or more9269(38.1)114(1.0)1.00<.0001
 High school10,259(45.1)249(2.1)2.12(1.63–2.77) 
 Middle schools2312(8.9)104(4.0)4.14(2.99–5.74) 
 Elementary school or less2236(7.8)154(6.3)6.62(4.94–8.88) 
House income
 High8260(33.2)132(1.3)1.00<.0001
 Middle13,531(57.9)340(2.1)1.71(1.33–2.20) 
 Low2041(9.0)142(5.8)4.87(3.58–6.62) 
Marital status
 Married17,775(68.0)407(2.0)1.00<.0001
 Unmarried4860(26.6)94(1.6)0.82(0.63–1.08) 
 Divorced/Widowed/separated1419(5.4)119(7.4)3.93(3.06–5.05) 
Body mass index
 18.5–22.910,096(41.3)229(1.9)1.000.03
  < 18.51163(5.0)32(1.9)1.01(0.65–1.57) 
  ≥ 23.012,793(53.7)360(2.4)1.26(1.03–1.53) 
Smoking status
 non-smokers14,261(53.1)393(2.3)1.000.02
  < 5pack727(3.4)27(3.5)1.49(0.96–2.34) 
  ≥ 5pack9074(43.5)199(1.9)0.79(0.65–0.94) 
Alcohol consumption
 Non-drinkers4830(17.6)191(3.7)1.000.003
  ≤ 2-4times/month13,772(57.5)328(2.0)0.53(0.43–0.66) 
 2-3times/week3990(18.2)66(1.5)0.39(0.28–0.54) 
  ≥ 4times/week1424(6.6)36(2.0)0.55(0.37–0.81) 
Physical activity
 No18,558(76.9)476(2.2)1.000.39
 Yes5509(23.1)144(2.0)0.91(0.73–1.13) 
History of depression diagnosed by a doctor
 No23,312(96.9)283(0.9)1.00<.0001
 Yes790(3.1)339(41.4)1.71(1.38–2.10) 
Prevalence of chronic diseases
 No22,026(92.8)464(1.8)1.00<.0001
 Yes2076(7.2)158(6.7)3.81(3.02–4.82) 
Metabolic syndrome
 No19,175(79.9)447(1.9)1.00<.0001
 Yes4927(20.1)175(3.2)1.70(1.38–2.11) 
Waist circumference (cm)
  < 90 (< 80 for women)16,956(72.2)348(1.8)1.00<.0001
  ≥ 90 (≥80 for women)7146(27.8)274(3.2)1.83(1.51–2.22) 
Triglyceride level (mg/dL)
  < 15017,771(72.8)437(2.0)1.000.01
  ≥ 1506331(185(2.7)1.34(1.078–1.66) 
Blood pressure*
 Normal18,804(77.6)498(2.2)1.000.28
 Abnormal5298(22.4)124(2.0)0.88(0.69–1.11) 
HDL cholesterol level (mg/dL)
  ≥ 40 (≥50 for women)14,539(62.9)297(1.7)1.00<.0001
  < 40 (< 50 for women)9563(37.1)325(3.1)1.85(1.53–2.24) 
FBS (mg/dL)
  < 10018,811(78.4)460(2.0)1.000.01
  ≥ 1005291(21.6)162(2.8)1.37(1.10–1.72) 
  1. Normal: systolic < 130 mmHg and diastolic < 85 mmHg; abnormal: systolic ≥130 mmHg and diastolic 85 mmHg
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