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Table 4 Facilitators to Dissemination and Adoption of Precision Medicine Approaches

From: Barriers and facilitators to dissemination and adoption of precision medicine among Hispanics/Latinos

 Family• “My family, especially my daughters, help me make health decisions. If they tell me that I need to do this medicine, I will do it.”• “Hispanics have large extended families and that before to make decisions, we ask our sisters, mothers, even our friends before we make any health decision.”
 Information in Spanish• “The majority of Hispanics living here do not speak English at all, so if the information [about PM] is in our language, it may help us understand because it is in Spanish.”• “I think that the doctor who speaks the same language I speak [Spanish] can help me understand. If the doctor speaks English I would not get a [genetic] test.”
 Plain Language and Graphics• “When [PM] information is distributed in pamphlets, it should not have to many written words. It should have drawings so that everyone can understand. For example, I only finish elementary school …”• “Most of the time, the information about new things like this medicine is not given in a way that people can understand. Then little by little [doctors] can explain to us what diseases [PM] could treat and cure.”
 Assistance Programs for Uninsured• “I think that free programs that can offer free genetic testing would be good for those who do not have health insurance.”• “I do not go to visit the doctor becasuse I do not have health insurance. I wonder who will help me to go to the doctor to get a genetic test. Who will help me if I need to go back to the doctor again?”
 Trust in Doctors and Healthcare staff• “… doctors are accredited and have all the support they need for this type of medicine, so patients can say ok …”
• “… a doctor studied medicine and in [his/her] office [he/she] has a diploma. That makes me more confident.”
• “If the doctor tells me that I have a chronic disease and need to use PM, I will use it.”
• “Nurses who work with doctors study to work in a hospital, and they have to be good to help doctors. I trust them.”
“… since this medicine’s focus is precision, I trust a doctor because [he/she] looks into each case, each patient.”
 Trust in Well-known Hospitals• “I feel good when I get health information at the hospital because it is the place where I get healthcare.”
• “… but that information must be in Spanish though.”
• “I would trust more if it comes from a hospital because there, there is the appropriate equipment. I fully trust if the [PM information] comes from a hospital.”
 Trust in Academic Institutions• “If universities like Vanderbilt will keep genetic information, I can trust my information … they do not give our medical information to the government”• “I heard that universities do not do research unless one gives them permission. I guess it would be the same with precision medicine.”
 Source of Information: Healthcare Provider• “… a doctor can give accurate information, so that people can express real interest, that is why they are professional.”• “I would not trust anyone but doctors because they can explain to us very well that it is to detect a disease in my blood.”
 Source of Information: Community Organizations• “.. the best way to teach or explain to people about [precision] medicine it would be through foundations, hospitals, churches, even at schools could be explained how this medicine works and how will benefit people.”• “I think that if a place like this [community center] offers presentations, forums, workshops, and other things, people can understand better what precision medicine is.”
 Personal Motivation• “It would be up to each person’s interest. If someone has the interest in being cured, [he/she] will use precision medicine.”• “Anyway, persons who are already sick will use the service [precision medicine]. I think that if a person feels healthy will not.”
 Altruism (societal benefit)• “Yes, I would participate in [precision medicine] because [it] would help to act fast to treat a disease to help others in the future”• “.. if the doctor asks me to provide my genetic information for future researches, I believe that like human beings, [we] have to accept the [genetic] test because it is for the benefit of the advance of medicine for other people …”