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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of study participants according to type of exercise

From: Association between type of exercise and health-related quality of life in adults without activity limitations: a nationwide cross-sectional study

  Total Non-exerciser Walking Flexibility Resistance Walking + Flexibility Walking +Resistance Flexibility +Resistance Walking +Flexibility +Resistance P*
N 13,437 4659 2270 2058 227 1508 159 1249 1307  
Smoking status           < 0.001
 Current smoker 29.2 (0.6) 30.3 (0.8) 31.4 (1.3) 23.0 (1.2) 47.5 (4.5) 23.8 (1.5) 37.0 (4.7) 29.8 (1.7) 31.4 (1.8)  
 Former smoker 21.0 (0.4) 18.9 (0.7) 18.5 (1.0) 18.9 (1.1) 19.7 (2.8) 17.5 (1.2) 28.5 (4.3) 30.4 (1.6) 29.2 (1.5)  
 Non-smoker 49.8 (0.5) 50.8 (0.8) 50.1 (1.4) 58.1 (1.4) 32.8 (4.1) 58.7 (1.6) 34.5 (4.7) 39.8 (1.8) 39.5 (1.7)  
 Problem drinker 38.4 (0.5) 36.6 (0.8) 39.3 (1.4) 32.6 (1.3) 56.3 (4.4) 32.7 (1.7) 52.5 (4.9) 42.3 (1.8) 47.9 (1.8) < 0.001
Activities of daily living          < 0.001
 Light 51.4 (0.6) 56.7 (0.9) 48.3 (1.4) 53.9 (1.4) 58.9 (3.8) 45.2 (1.6) 49.9 (4.8) 47.0 (1.8) 45.2 (1.7)  
 Normal 39.1 (0.5) 35.3 (0.8) 40.3 (1.3) 40.9 (1.3) 30.8 (3.7) 45.2 (1.6) 36.9 (4.8) 42.5 (1.8) 39.6 (1.8)  
 Severe 9.5 (0.4) 8.1 (0.6) 11.5 (1.0) 5.3 (0.6) 10.4 (2.8) 9.5 (1.1) 13.3 (3.2) 10.6 (1.2) 15.3 (1.4)  
BMI (kg/m2)           < 0.001
 <  18.5 4.8 (0.2) 6.3 (0.5) 6.2 (0.7) 3.9 (0.5) 2.6 (1.2) 4.4 (0.6) 2.6 (1.4) 2.0 (0.5) 2.9 (0.6)  
 18.5–25 63.6 (0.5) 61.2 (0.9) 67.3 (1.2) 64.4 (1.4) 65.6 (4.3) 64.3 (1.5) 59.2 (4.8) 63.6 (1.8) 64.0 (1.7)  
 ≥ 25 31.5 (0.5) 32.5 (0.9) 26.5 (1.2) 31.6 (1.3) 31.8 (4.1) 31.3 (1.5) 38.2 (4.8) 34.4 (1.9) 33.1 (1.7)  
Past medical history
 Hypertension 13.4 (0.4) 15.0 (0.7) 11.7 (0.7) 13.1 (0.8) 12.9 (2.3) 11.9 (1.0) 12.0 (2.5) 14.5 (1.2) 12.6 (1.0) 0.015
 Diabetes mellitus 4.8 (0.2) 5.5 (0.4) 4.2 (0.5) 3.7 (0.4) 4.3 (1.5) 4.5 (0.6) 6.5 (2.1) 4.9 (0.7) 5.2 (0.7) 0.145
 Malignancy 1.0 (0.1) 0.9 (0.2) 0.9 (0.2) 1.4 (0.3) 0.9 (0.5) 0.9 (0.2) 0.3 (0.3) 0.7 (0.2) 1.0 (0.2) 0.416
 Stroke 0.5 (0.1) 0.5 (0.1) 0.4 (0.1) 0.4 (0.1) 0.4 (0.3) 0.5 (0.2) 0.4 (0.3) 0.5 (0.2) 0.5 (0.3) 0.998
 CVD 1.3 (0.1) 1.2 (0.2) 1.4 (0.3) 1.4 (0.3) 1.0 (0.7) 1.0 (0.2) 0.7 (0.5) 1.4 (0.3) 1.3 (0.3) 0.896
 Arthritis 6.0 (0.2) 6.8 (0.4) 6.5 (0.6) 7.2 (0.6) 4.1 (1.6) 6.0 (0.7) 2.5 (1.3) 4.4 (0.6) 3.7 (0.5) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, CVD cardiovascular disease
  2. Data are presented as percentage (SE)
  3. *P-values were obtained using a Pearson chi-squared test