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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of study participants according to type of exercise

From: Association between type of exercise and health-related quality of life in adults without activity limitations: a nationwide cross-sectional study

  Total Non-exerciser Walking Flexibility Resistance Walking + Flexibility Walking +Resistance Flexibility +Resistance Walking +Flexibility +Resistance P*
N 13,437 4659 2270 2058 227 1508 159 1249 1307  
Age (years) 42.8 ± 0.2 43.7 ± 0.3 41.2 ± 0.4 44.2 ± 0.4 39.6 ± 1.2 41.8 ± 0.4 36.1 ± 1.3 44.8 ± 0.5 41.8 ± 0.6 < 0.001
Sex (males) 53.3 (0.5) 49.6 (0.8) 52.9 (1.3) 40.8 (1.4) 84.3 (2.5) 40.5 (1.6) 89.1 (2.6) 68.2 (1.5) 71.8 (1.6) < 0.001
Household income           < 0.001
 Lowest 12.3 (0.5) 13.3 (0.7) 14.3 (0.9) 10.3 (0.8) 9.1 (1.9) 12.6 (1.1) 13.1 (3.1) 9.5 (1.0) 10.9 (1.3)  
 Lower intermediate 27.0 (0.7) 28.0 (1.0) 28.8 (1.2) 26.2 (1.4) 32.5 (4.6) 26.0 (1.5) 27.1 (4.6) 23.2 (1.8) 25.2 (1.7)  
 Higher intermediate 31.0 (0.7) 31.3 (1.0) 30.7 (1.3) 31.8 (1.3) 29.4 (4.3) 31.5 (1.6) 30.2 (4.2) 29.5 (1.8) 30.6 (1.5)  
 Highest 29.7 (0.8) 27.4 (1.1) 26.2 (1.3) 31.7 (1.5) 28.9 (4.1) 29.9 (1.7) 29.7 (4.6) 37.8 (1.9) 33.4 (1.8)  
Education level           < 0.001
 ≤ Elementary school 13.2 (0.5) 17.3 (0.8) 15.7 (1.0) 12.7 (0.8) 12.6 (2.2) 10.0 (0.8) 8.3 (2.3) 8.0 (1.0) 5.8 (0.7)  
 Middle school 9.4 (0.3) 10.1 (0.6) 8.3 (0.7) 9.2 (1.0) 7.6 (2.3) 8.0 (0.8) 8.6 (2.8) 11.1 (1.1) 9.5 (1.0)  
 High school 42.1 (0.6) 38.2 (1.0) 43.7 (1.4) 39.5 (1.5) 53.6 (4.2) 46.2 (1.7) 49.0 (4.8) 43.5 (1.8) 47.4 (1.8)  
 ≥ University 35.3 (0.7) 34.5 (1.1) 32.3 (1.2) 38.7 (1.5) 26.3 (3.5) 35.9 (1.6) 34.2 (4.6) 37.5 (1.9) 37.4 (1.7)  
Marital status           < 0.001
 With spouse 68.0 (0.7) 72.7 (0.9) 60.6 (1.5) 74.8 (1.3) 50.0 (4.0) 63.8 (1.5) 37.0 (4.6) 73.9 (1.8) 62.5 (1.9)  
 Without spouse 7.0 (0.3) 7.9 (0.5) 6.7 (0.6) 7.4 (0.7) 6.5 (1.8) 7.4 (0.8) 6.5 (2.4) 6.6 (0.8) 4.7 (0.7)  
 Unmarried 25.0 (0.7) 19.4 (0.9) 32.7 (1.5) 17.8 (1.2) 43.6 (4.2) 28.9 (1.6) 56.5 (4.9) 19.5 (1.7) 32.8 (1.9)  
Area of residence (Urban) 82.0 (1.6) 78.2 (2.0) 80.7 (1.9) 82.8 (1.9) 77.4 (5.0) 87.4 (1.8) 84.0 (3.7) 86.5 (1.7) 86.7 (1.7) < 0.001
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard error (SE) or percentage (SE)
  2. *P-values were obtained using a one-way analysis of variance for continuous variables and a Pearson chi-squared test for categorical variables