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Table 3 Descriptive statistics of study participants at enrolment. Continuous variables reported as [mean (SD)] and binary variables reported as [frequency (%)]

From: Promoting parent-child relationships and preventing violence via home-visiting: a pre-post cluster randomised trial among Rwandan families linked to social protection programmes

 CLASSIC PUBLIC WORKS (cPW)EXPANDED PUBLIC WORKS (ePW)
Sugira Muryango + cPWcPW onlySugira Muryango + ePWePW only
HOUSEHOLDS (N = 1049)n = 374n = 374n = 167n = 134
High food insecurity239 (63.9%)229 (61.2%)104 (62.3%)70 (52.2%)
CHILDREN (N = 1084)n = 386n = 384n = 173n = 141
Average age in months21.0 (8.14)21.8 (8.6)20.8 (8.2)22.3 (8.4)
Health status and wellbeing
 Stunted (HAZ < 2)184 (47.7%)178 (46.4%)85 (49.1%)75 (53.2%)
 Wasted (WHZ < 2)13 (3.4%)9 (2.3%)8 (4.6%)2 (1.4%)
 Underweight (WAZ < 2)63 (16.3%)71 (18.5%)30 (17.3%)27 (19.1%)
 Screens positive, disability or developmental delay110 (28.6%)111 (29.0%)57 (32.9%)38 (27.1%)
 Any violent punishment184 (47.7%)180 (47.0%)83 (48.0%)59 (41.8%)
CAREGIVERS (N = 1498)n = 555n = 564n = 211n = 168
Average age in years
[range]
34.5 (9.7)
[18–79]
35.7 (10.3)
[19–75]
36.3 (10.6)
[18–79]
37.5 (12.7)
[18–84]
Marital Status
 Single, separated, divorced, widowed171 (30.8%)166 (29.43%)117 (55.5%)91 (54%)
 Married/cohabitating384 (69.2%)398 (70.6%)94 (44.5%)77 (45.8%)
Relationship with child
 Biological mother341 (61.4%)338 (59.9%)152 (72.0%)119 (70.8%)
 Biological father179 (32.3%)183 (32.4%)44 (20.9%)27 (16.1%)
 Adoptive mother2 (0.4%)1 (0.2%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)
 Stepfather1 (0.2%)4 (0.7%)0 (0.0%)5 (3.0%)
 Stepmother1 (0.2%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)
 Aunt/uncle3 (0.5%)2 (0.4%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)
 Grandparents28 (5.0%)36 (6.4%)15 (7.1%)17 (10.1%)
Educational Attainment
 No school/Don’t know112 (20.2%)132 (23.4%)60 (28.4%)38 (22.6%)
  < 6 years275 (49.5%)252 (44.7%)97 (46.0%)88 (52.4%)
  ≥ 6 yrs. Primary88 (15.9%)89 (15.8%)26 (12.3%)21 (12.5%)
 Secondary/vocational school80 (14.4%)91 (16.1%)28 (13.3%)21 (12.5%)
Health and safety
 Screens positive, disability60 (10.8%)63 (11.2%)36 (17.1%)26 (15.5%)
 Screens positive, depression or anxiety275 (49.5%)248 (44.0%)117 (55.5%)83 (49.4%)
 Maternal victimisation violence, last three monthsa78 (39.8%)73 (35.3%)15 (29.4%)15 (36.6%)
 Paternal perpetration violence, last 3 monthsa38 (21.2%)41 (22.3%)10 (23.3%)4 (12.5%)
  1. a among mothers (n = 495) and fathers (n = 438) who are married or cohabitating
  2. HAZ Height-for-age, WHZ weight-for-height, WAZ Weight-for-age
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