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Table 3 Logistic regression for prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by socioeconomic status

From: Socioeconomic variations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment in rural Southwest China

VariablePrevalenceDiagnosisReceiving treatment
Adjusted odds ratioa95% CIAdjusted odds ratioa95% CIAdjusted odds ratioa95% CI
 (reference: Han ethnic majority)
  Na Xi ethnic minority1.83**(1.34, 2.15)0.17**(0.11, 0.27)0.17**(0.11, 0.28)
  Bai ethnic minority1.42**(1.20, 1.68)0.29**(0.20, 0.42)0.28**(0.19, 0.41)
Level of education
 (reference: Primary (grade 1–6) or lower)
  Middle (grade 7–9) or higher0.89*(0.75. 0.99)2.85**(2.00, 4.06)2.79**(1.95, 3.99)
Approximate annual household income
 (reference: Poor)
  Good1.02(0.89, 1.17)1.13(0.83, 1.56)1.16*(1.04, 1.60)
Access to medical services
 (reference: Poor)
  Good0.85*(0.73, 0.99)1.33**(1.18, 1.56)1.14*(1.02, 1.58)
  1. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, a adjusted for age, sex, current smokers, SHS exposure, tobacco cultivation, daily indoor exposure to biomass fuel, underweight status, and family history of lung disease