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Table 1 Demographics of respondents according to waterpipe smoking status

From: Waterpipe smoking among university students in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional study

 All respondentsNever smokedEver smokedp value
Total, n (%)1288982 (76.2)306 (23.8) 
Gender, n (%)   0.091
 Males416 (32.3)315 (32.1)101 (33.0)
 Females872 (67.7)667 (67.9)205 (67.0)
Age, n (%)   < 0.001
 18–19 years183 (14.3)164 (16.7)19 (6.2)
 20–21 years463 (36.1)364 (37.2)99 (32.4)
 22–23 years345 (26.8)257 (26.3)88 (28.8)
 24 year or older293 (22.8)193 (19.7)100 (32.7) 
- Age, mean (SD)22.4 (3.8)22.1 (3.7)23.2 (3.9)< 0.001
- Initiation age, mean (SD)20.2 (3.6)
Household income, n (%)a   < 0.001
 HK$19,999 or below425 (45.4)339 (47.3)86 (39.3)
 HK$20,000 - HK$49,999397 (42.4)308 (43.0)89 (40.6)
 HK$50,000 or above114 (12.2)70 (9.7)44 (20.1)
Education level, n (%)   0.217
 Undergraduate897 (82.5)707 (83.3)190 (79.8)
 Postgraduate190 (17.5)142 (16.7)48 (20.2)
Alcohol consumption, n (%)   < 0.001
 Never337 (26.2)323 (32.9)14 (4.6)
 Once a month or less663 (51.5)536 (54.6)127 (41.5)
 More than monthly288 (22.4)123 (12.5)165 (53.9)
Sensation-seeking behaviour, n (%)  < 0.001
 Low (8–18)315 (24.5)282 (28.7)33 (10.8) 
 Medium (19–29)834 (64.8)629 (64.1)205 (67.0)
 High (30–40)139 (10.8)71 (7.2)68 (22.2)
Loneliness, n (%)   0.009
 Not lonely520 (40.4)377 (38.4)143 (46.7)
 Lonely (≥6)768 (59.6)605 (61.6)163 (53.3)