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Table 3 Clinical, sociodemographic, and dietary characteristics by double burden diagnostic category in a sample of adults from rural South India

From: Socio-demographic patterning of the individual-level double burden of malnutrition in a rural population in South India: a cross-sectional study

CharacteristicCategory 1: Neither anemia nor overweight (n = 250)Category 2: Anemia only (n = 218)Category 3: Overweight or obese only (n = 145)Category 4: Co-morbid anemia and overweight or obese (n = 138)p-value for trend*
Descriptive characteristics
 Age44.9 ± 15.051.5 ± 16.145.5 ± 11.746.2 ± 13.3< 0.001a,d,e
 Women (%)41.765.149.068.1< 0.001a,c,d,f
 Hypertension (%)22.424.141.540.1< 0.001a,b,d,e
 Rurality Index−0.21 ± 1.31−0.24 ± 1.14−0.94 ± 1.41−1.07 ± 1.21< 0.001b,c,d,e
 Current tobacco consumer (%)44.144.734.725.70.001c,e
 Muslim (Hindu as referent) religion (%)3.61.85.55.10.24
Wealth and possession attributes
 Wealth index11.00 ± 4.319.56 ± 4.3512.17 ± 4.8111.73 ± 5.10< 0.001a,d,e
 High-quality (pucca) housing (%)10.78.320.718.80.001b,d,e
 Land ownership (acres)1.50 ± 1.851.20 ± 1.541.21 ± 1.861.07 ± 1.990.11
 Livestock ownership (%)51.846.334.525.5< 0.001b.c,e
 In-house tap water (%)7.55.511.79.40.18
Physical activity habits
 Physical Activity (hours/day of moderate physical activity)4.55 ± 3.663.98 ± 3.433.59 ± 3.773.38 ± 3.770.008c
 Sedentary time (hours/day)4.06 ± 2.504.42 ± 2.854.76 ± 2.914.9 ± 2.700.0093
 Television time (hours/day)1.33 ± 1.261.23 ± 1.241.68 ± 1.361.81 ± 1.33< 0.001c,d,e
 Labour occupation (%)54.764.547.644.90.001d,e
Dietary intake (g/1000 kcal unless otherwise specified)
 Current alcohol consumer (%)52.341.749.744.20.10
 Total energy intake (kcal/day)2436 ± 8682307 ± 6342436 ± 6942353 ± 6430.20
 Carbohydrates179.8 ± 15.6183.2 ± 13.3176.3 ± 14.7176.7 ± 12.9< 0.001d,e
 Protein25.8 ± 2.125.3 ± 1.825.8 ± 1.925.7 ± 1.70.031
 Total fat19.2 ± 5.518.3 ± 5.120.9 ± 5.021.3 ± 4.8< 0.001b,c,d,e
 Dietary fibre22.4 ± 5.222.6 ± 5.321.3 ± 5.020.7 ± 4.6< 0.001c,d,e
 Dairy products81.0 ± 73.075.0 ± 65.481.6 ± 65.389.2 ± 65.10.29
 Pulses and legumes26.4 ± 11.426.2 ± 12.128.7 ± 12.229.2 ± 10.70.005
 Meat and poultry3.8 ± 4.92.4 ± 2.53.4 ± 03.92.8 ± 03.9< 0.001a
 Fruits and vegetables73.0 ± 46.768.7 ± 42.483.3 ± 49.087.2 ± 56.1< 0.001d,e
 Refined grains63.6 ± 34.363.3 ± 31.971.5 ± 27.074.4 ± 32.70.001c,e
  1. *P-values are for Pearson’s chi square for proportions and one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) for means
  2. aCategory 1 versus 2 different to p < 0.05 with Sidak pairwise comparison; bCategory 1 versus 3 different to p < 0.05 with Sidak pairwise comparison; cCategory 1 versus 4 different to p < 0.05 with Sidak pairwise comparison; dCategory 2 versus 3 different to p < 0.05 with Sidak pairwise comparison; eCategory 2 versus 4 different to p < 0.05 with Sidak pairwise comparison; fCategory 3 versus 4 different to p < 0.05 with Sidak pairwise comparison
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