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Table 2 Association of severe underweight with conflict status, child-, household- and cluster- and state-level characteristics

From: Armed conflict as a determinant of children malnourishment: a cross-sectional study in The Sudan

 Model (1)
OR (95%CI)
Model (2)
OR (95%CI)
Model (3)
OR (95%CI)
Model (4)
OR (95%CI)
Model (5)
OR (95%CI)
Conflict intensity level/year of eruption
 Conflict-free (ref)     
 Low intensity/2005 (LI/2005) 2.60*** (1.51–4.47)2.73*** (1.52–4.92)1.48+ (0.97–2.25)1.60* (1.03–2.49)
 High intensity/2011 (HI/2011) 1.45 (0.80–2.64)1.53 (0.80–2.93)0.79 (0.51–1.25)0.82 (0.50–1.32)
 High intensity/2003 (HI/2003) 1.88** (1.20–2.95)1.97** (1.21–3.21)0.88 (0.61–1.27)0.91 (0.58–1.44)
Child age  3.53*** (2.83–4.40)3.51*** (2.82–4.37)3.53*** (2.83–4.39)
Presence of diarrhoea
 No (ref)
 Yes  1.70*** (1.41–2.04)1.65*** (1.37–1.98)1.66*** (1.38–2.00)
Mother education
 None   3.03*** (2.15–4.26)2.98*** (2.11–4.21)
 Primary   2.06*** (1.52–2.80)2.04*** (1.50–2.78)
 Secondary + (ref)     
Household wealth index quintile
 Poorest   4.15*** (2.43–7.07)3.10*** (1.69–5.69)
 Second   4.24*** (2.58–6.96)3.35*** (1.93–5.83)
 Middle   3.13*** (1.99–4.94)2.71*** (1.67–4.42)
 Fourth   2.21*** (1.46–3.36)2.07*** (1.35–3.16)
 Richest (ref)     
Food consumption profile (FCP)
 Poor consumption   0.81 (0.50–1.29)0.81 (0.51–1.29)
 Borderline consumption   1.10 (0.86–1.41)1.10 (0.86–1.41)
 Acceptable consumption (ref)     
Area of residence
 Rural    1.65** (1.22–2.24)
 Urban (ref)     
Intercept0.09*** (0.07–0.13)0.06*** (0.05–0.09)0.02*** (0.01–0.03)0.003*** (0.001–0.006)0.003*** (0.001–0.006)
State-level variance0.24* (0.10–0.57)0.10 (0.03–0.30)0.12 (0.04–0.35)0.04 (0.01–0.19)0.04 (0.01–0.20)
Cluster-level variance0.86*** (0.63–1.18)0.86*** (0.63–1.18)1.00*** (0.73–1.36)0.61*** (0.42–0.90)0.57*** (0.38–0.84)
Household-level variance1.86*** (1.28–2.70)1.86*** (1.28–2.70)2.13*** (1.48–3.06)1.95*** (1.34–2.85)1.92*** (1.31–2.81)
State-level ICC0.040.020.020.010.01
Cluster-level ICC0.180.160.170.110.10
Household-level ICC0.470.460.500.440.43
Observations81918191819181918191
LR chi2 14.657169.015273.180281.160
  1. Values are relative odds ratios; 95% confidence intervals in brackets unless stated otherwise
  2. The dependent variable: severe underweight vs. normal
  3. +p < 0.10, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  4. Model (1): the empty model
  5. Model (2): adjusted for conflict intensity
  6. Model (3): adjusted for conflict intensity + child-level predictors
  7. Model (4): adjusted for conflict intensity + child-level predictors + household-level predictors
  8. Model (5): adjusted for conflict intensity + child-level predictors + household-level predictors + cluster-level predictors + state-level predictors