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Table 3 Multivariable regression analysis of determinants for child development in rural South Africa*

From: Psychosocial and environmental determinants of child cognitive development in rural south africa and tanzania: findings from the mal-ed cohort

 Full Scale IQ
SD* [95% CI]
Verbal IQ
SD* [95% CI]
Performance IQ
SD* [95% CI]
Environmental Factors
 Organization of the Environment3.62*[0.29, 6.95]1.95 [-0.09, 3.99]1.67 [-0.21, 3.54]
 Provision of Play Material1.42 [-1.82, 4.65]1.79 [-0.19, 3.77]-0.37 [-2.19, 1.45]
 Opportunities for Stimulation3.00 [-0.21, 6.22]1.17 [-0.80, 3.13]1.84*[0.03, 3.65]
 Cleanliness of the Child1.36 [-3.76, 6.49]-0.27 [-3.41, 2.86]1.63 [-1.25, 4.52]
 Socioeconomic Status16.00*[0.12, 31.89]5.00 [-4.72, 14.72]11.00*[2.06, 19.94]
Maternal Factors
 Responsivity of the Caregiver-1.05 [-4.83, 2.74]-0.60 [-2.92, 1.71]-0.44 [-2.57, 1.69]
 Avoidance of Punishment4.05*[0.69, 7.42]1.75 [-0.32, 3.81]2.31* [0.41, 4.20]
 Promotion of Child Development-1.29 [-5.05, 2.47]-0.28 [-2.59, 2.01]-1.00 [-3.13, 1.11]
 Depressive Symptoms 1,6, 12 mo.-2.83 [-6.46, 0.80]0.79 [-3.00, 1.44]-2.04*[-4.09, -0.00]
 Depressive Symptoms 24, 36 mo.2.73 [-0.65, 6.12]2.21* [0.13, 4.28]0.53 [-1.38, 2.44]
 Depressive Symptoms 60 mo.-1.17 [-5.20, 2.86]-1.24 [-3.70, 1.22]0.07 [-2.20, 1.23]
 Maternal Education > 7/10years1.02 [-2.29, 4.34]0.86 [-1.17, 2.89]0.16 [-1.71, 2,02]
  1. * Estimates in the tables above are adjusted for site, birthweight, field assessors, and all other variables in the table.
  2. * SD: WPPSI Score Difference
  3. * P-value < 0.05