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Table 2 Multivariable regression analysis of child development determinants in rural South Africa and Tanzania*

From: Psychosocial and environmental determinants of child cognitive development in rural south africa and tanzania: findings from the mal-ed cohort

 Full Scale IQ
SD* [95% CI]
Verbal IQ
SD* [95% CI]
Performance IQ
SD* [95% CI]
Environmental Factors
 Organization of the Environment3.08*[0.65, 5.52]1.79*[0.32, 3.27]1.29 [-0.06, 2.65]
 Provision of Play Material-0.66 [-3.01, 1.20]0.76 [-0.66, 2.19]-1.42*[-2.73, -0.11]
 Opportunities for Stimulation3.18*[0.59, 5.76]1.42 [-0.15, 2.99]1.76*[0.32, 3.20]
 Cleanliness of the Child1.20 [-1.77, 4.18]0.42 [-1.38, 2.22]0.78 [-0.87, 2.44]
 Socioeconomic Status14.27*[1.96, 26.59]4.24 [-3.22, 11.71]10.03*[3.17, 16.89]
Maternal Factors
 Responsivity of the Caregiver-1.92 [-4.66, 0.81]-1.18 [-2.83, 0.48]-0.74 [-2.27, 0.78]
 Avoidance of Punishment1.58 [-1.38, 4.55]0.42 [-1.38, 0.48]1.17 [-0.48, 2.82]
 Promotion of Child Development-1.89 [-4.71, 0.93]-0.81 [-2.51, 0.48]1.09 [-2.66, 0.49]
 Depressive Symptoms 1,6, 12 mo.-0.31 [-3.03, 2.40]0.72 [-0.93, 2.37]-1.03 [-2.54, 0.48]
 Depressive Symptoms 24, 36 mo.1.40 [-1.26, 4.06]1.53 [-0.09, 3.14]-0.13 [-1.61, 1.35]
 Depressive Symptoms 60 mo.-1.27 [-4.33, 1.79]-0.79 [-2.65, 1.06]-0.47 [-2.18, 1.23]
 Maternal Education > 7/10years0.87 [-1.74, 3.49]0.76 [-0.83, 2.34]0.11 [-1.34, 1.57]
  1. * Estimates in the tables above are adjusted for site, birthweight, field assessors, and all other variables in the table.
  2. * SD: WPPSI Score Difference
  3. * P-value < 0.05