Skip to main content

Table 6 Maximum likelihood estimates of Partial proportional odds model

From: Determinants of under-nutrition among children under five years of age in Ethiopia

PredictorsSeverely undernourished versus nourished and moderately undernourished
CoefficientStd. ErrorZP > |z|Odds ratio95% CI for OR
RegionAfar0.1980.1151.730.0841.219(0.974, 1.525)
Amhara0.3280.1013.250.0011.389(1.139, 1.693)
Oromia−0.1520.102−1.490.1360.859(0.704, 1.049)
Somali−0.3120.113−2.760.0060.732(0.586, 0.914)
Benshangul0.2930.1142.570.0101.341(1.073, 1.677)
SNNPR−0.0070.105− 0.070.9460.993(0.808, 1.220)
Gambela−0.4390.141−3.120.0020.645(0.489, 0.849)
Harari−0.2130.127−1.680.0920.808(0.630, 1.036)
Addis Ababa−0.8120.173−4.690.0000.444(0.316, 0.624)
Dire Dawa0.2370.1431.660.0971.267(0.958, 1.676)
ResidenceRural−0.1380.104−1.320.1860.871(0.711, 1.069)
Mother’ educationPrimary−0.1000.061−1.620.1050.905(0.803, 1.021)
Secondary & above−0.5470.116−4.720.0000.579(0.461, 0.726)
Drinking waterUnimproved0.1020.0512.010.0451.108(1.002, 1.224)
House hold size5–90.0540.0690.780.4341.055(0.922, 1.207)
10 & more0.2080.1231.700.0891.232(0.969, 1.566)
No children< 5 years2−0.1440.076−1.900.0570.866(0.746, 1.004)
3 and more0.1500.0552.720.0071.162(1.043, 1.294)
Wealth indexPoorer0.0820.0701.180.2381.085(0.947, 1.244)
Middle−0.2040.076−2.670.0080.815(0.702, 0.947)
Richer−0.4530.083−5.440.0000.636(0.540, 0.748)
Richest−0.6120.121−5.060.0000.542(0.428, 0.688)
AnemiaAnemic0.1970.0503.950.0001.218(1.105, 1.343)
Husband’s educationPrimary−0.1880.063−3.010.0030.828(0.732, 0.936)
Secondary & above−0.1710.086−2.000.0450.843(0.712, 0.996)
Birth order2–3−0.0590.074−0.790.4280.943(0.816, 1.090)
4–50.0960.0931.030.3021.101(0.917, 1.320)
6 and more0.0500.0950.530.5981.052(0.872, 1.268)
Multiple birth1st of multiple0.7250.2103.450.0012.066(1.369, 3.112)
2nd of multiple0.7960.2223.580.0002.216(1.433, 3.427)
SexFemale−0.2140.053−4.070.0000.808(0.729, 0.895)
Age of child in month6–110.5830.1234.740.0001.792(1.408, 2.281)
12–231.6460.10715.370.0005.185(4.203, 6.395)
24–352.0570.10719.190.0007.819(6.338, 9.647)
36–341.9800.1070.0000.0007.244(5.869, 8.941)
48–591.8590.10717.330.0006.415(5.199, 7.916)
FeverYes0.2370.0773.060.0021.267(1.089, 1.475)
CoughYes−0.0190.074−0.260.7930.981(0.849, 1.133)
Mother’s age at birth20–34−0.1100.049−2.240.0250.895(0.813, 0.986)
35–490.2960.5620.530.5991.344(0.447, 4.046)
BMI of motherNormal−0.3490.055−6.360.0000.705(0.633, 0.785)
Overweight−0.9390.106−8.870.0000.391(0.318, 0.481)
Constant−1.9290.19110.090.0000.145(0.100, 0.211)
  1. Key: the reference category for predictors is: Region (Tigray), Residence (urban), mother’s education (no education), source of drinking water (improved source), house hold size (1–4), number of children < 5 years (1), wealth index (poorest), anemia (no), husband’s education (no education), birth order (1), multiple birth (single), sex (male), age of child (0–6), diarrhea (no), cough (no), fever (no), mother’s age at birth (< 20), BMI (thin); BMI (Body mass index); Std. Error (Standard error); CI (confidence Interval) OR (Odds Ratio).