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Table 1 Bivariate description of the baseline characteristics across chronic dental problems (DPs) in the AH/CS participants, Toronto Site (Observed data)

From: Dental problems and chronic diseases in mentally ill homeless adults: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics at baselineN = 546No DPs (n = 314) (57.51%)Yes DPsa (n = 232) (42.49%)P-value
Demographics and socioeconomics
Genderb546   
  Male37353.6246.380.007
  Female17365.9034.10 
Age (years) at baseline54638.11 (11.82)43.47 (10.99)0.000t
Self-identified ethno-racial and cultural identityc546   
  White19454.1245.880.010
  Black18766.3133.690.000¥
  Other16551.5248.48 
Lifetime length of homelessness534   
   ≤ 3 years24868.9531.050.000
   > 3 years28648.2551.75 
Education546   
  Attended some middle/high school26055.0045.000.474
  Completed high school10461.5438.460.365¥
  Attended/completed college, trade, school, or university18258.7941.21 
Level of needs for mental and social services546   
  Moderate needs36656.8343.170.647
  High needs18058.8941.11 
Lifestyles and risk factors
Smoking544   
  No14672.6027.400.000
  Yes (daily or occasionally)39852.2647.74 
Drug abuse or dependence546   
  No28865.2834.720.000
  Yes25848.8451.16 
Alcohol abuse or dependence546   
  No31061.6138.390.026
  Yes23652.1247.88 
BMI (kg/m2)46827.05 (6.47)25.69 (5.55)0.019t
  1. aYes dental problem refers to self-reported of having DP lasted at least 6 months at AH/C-S baseline
  2. bFemale includes individuals identified as female and those as transsexual (n = 1) or transgender (n = 9) at AH/CS study's baseline
  3. cThe black group includes African-black, Caribbean region-black, and Canadian-black. The white group includes European-white and Canadian-white. Other ethno-racial group includes Indigenous, East Asian, South Asian, South-Eastern Asian, Latin American, Indians, and Caribbean, Middle Eastern, mixed
  4. t = t-test, ¥= p-trend