Skip to main content

Table 1 Description of the study participants

From: Prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism among adults attending an outpatient department at a tertiary referral hospital in Swaziland: a cross-sectional study

CharacteristicsTotalMenWomenp-value
Biomedicala
 Sample size, n (%)385 (100.0)197 (51.2)188 (48.8) 
 Age (years), mean (SD)37.77 (15.66)36.47 (15.63)39 (15.61)0.094
 BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD)25.67 (5.97)23.17 (4.11)28.28 (6.49)< 0.0001**
 Hip circumference (cm), mean (SD)100.09 (13.83)95.02 (1.96)105.40 (13.68)< 0.0001**
 Weight (cm), mean (SD)70.87 (15.16)63.31 (12.74)73.56 (16.97)0.001**
 Blood Glucose (mmol/L), mean (SD)
  Fasting Blood Glucose5.385 (1.211)5.286 (0.888)5.478 (1.449)0.141
  Random Blood Glucose7.368 (1.830)7.117 (1.632)8.055 (2.235)0.149
 BP (mm Hg), mean (SD)
  SBP123.13 (16.22)122.64 (13.99)123.64 (18.29)0.549
  DBP77.83 (11.33)77.90 (10.57)77.77 (12.11)0.909
 BMI (kg/m2), n (%)   < 0.0001*
  Underweight21 (5.5)19 (9.6)2 (1.1) 
  Normal186 (48.3)126 (64.0)60 (31.9) 
  Overweight102 (26.5)39 (19.8)63 (33.5) 
  Obese76 (19.7)13 (6.6)63 (33.5) 
 Waist circumference (cm), n (%)   0.855
  Normal221 (57.4)112 (56.9)109 (58.0) 
  Overweight59 (15.3)29 (14.7)30 (16.0) 
  Obese105 (27.3)56 (28.4)49 (26.1) 
 Waist-to-hip ratio, n (%)   0.640
  Normal247 (64.2)129 (65.5)118 (62.8) 
  Overweight49 (12.7)22 (11.2)27 (14.4) 
  Obese43 (23.1)46 (23.4)43 (22.9) 
 Hypertension (mmHg), n (%)   0.198
  Normal142 (36.9)68 (34.5)74 (39.4) 
  Elevated57 (14.8)33 (16.8)24 (12.8) 
  Hypertension stage 1113 (29.4)63 (32.0)50 (26.6) 
  Hypertension stage 267 (17.4)32 (16.2)35 (18.6) 
  Hypertension crisis6 (1.6)1 (0.5)5 (2.7) 
Socioeconomicb
 Education, n (%)   0.054
  No formal education26 (6.8)11 (5.6)15 (8.0) 
  Primary96 (24.9)45 (22.8)51 (27.1) 
  Secondary101 (26.2)44 (22.3)57 (30.3) 
  High school118 (30.6)67 (34.0)51 (27.1) 
  College/university degree42 (10.9)29 (14.7)13 (6.9) 
  Postgraduate degree2 (0.5)1 (0.5)1 (0.5) 
 Occupation, n (%)   0.022*
  Student49 (12.7)28 (14.2)21 (11.2) 
  Unemployed104 (27.0)43 (21.8)61 (32.4) 
  Civil servant157 (40.8)91 (46.2)66 (35.1) 
  Self employed58 (15.1)30 (15.2)28 (14.9) 
  Domestic worker8 (2.1)1 (0.5)7 (3.7) 
  Shop attendant9 (2.3)4 (2.1)5 (2.7) 
 Residence, n (%)   0.331
  Rural192 (50.1)94 (47.7)98 (57.2) 
  Urban191 (49.9)103 (52.3)88 (47.3) 
 Marital status, n (%)   0.081
  Single172 (44.8)99 (50.3)73 (39.0) 
  Married157 (40.9)74 (37.6)83 (44.4) 
  Staying with partner35 (9.1)18 (9.1)17 (9.1) 
  Widowed14 (3.6)5 (2.5)9 (4.8) 
  Divorced6 (1.6)1 (0.5)5 (2.7) 
 Average monthly income (SDE), n (%)   0.001*
   < 50041 (10.6)18 (9.1)23 (12.2) 
  500–99966 (17.1)23 (11.7)43 (22.9) 
  1000–199992 (23.9)41 (20.8)51 (27.1) 
  2000–299974 (19.2)42 (21.3)32 (17.0) 
   ≥ 3000112 (29.1)73 (37.1)39 (20.7) 
  1. abMean with SD for biomedical data and percentages for socio-demographic data
  2. *Chi-square or Fisher’s test, p < 0.05 was considered significant for men vs women
  3. **Univariate ANOVA, p < 0.05 was considered significant for gender differences between men and women
  4. BMI, Body mass index; BP, Blood pressure; DBP, Diastolic blood pressure; SBP, Systolic blood pressure; SD, Standard deviation; SDE: Swazi Emalangeni; n, Sample size