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Table 1 Age-and-education standardized prevalence of current smoking in RLMS rounds and ad hoc surveys a

From: Time trends in smoking in Russia in the light of recent tobacco control measures: synthesis of evidence from multiple sources

Central yearStudyMales (%)Females (%)
Ad hocRLMSAd hocRLMS
1985LRC/MONICA (1975–2002)58.2 (1.3)b 18.4 (0.9) 
1996RLMS 62.5(2.8) 12.1 (0.7)
1998RLMS 60.8 (2.8) 12.3 (0.7)
2000RLMS 61.0 (2.9) 14.1 (0.8)
2000Arkhangelsk study (2000)56.2 (3.2) 22.6 (1.3) 
2001RLMS 61.9 (2.9) 15.4 (0.8)
2001LLH (2001)63.0 (3.8) 17.9 (0.6) 
2002RLMS 63.4 (2.9) 16.6 (0.9)
2003RLMS 61.9 (2.9) 16.2 (0.9)
2004RLMS 62.0 (2.9) 18.0 (1.0)
2005RLMS 61.6 (3.0) 17.6 (1.0)
2006RLMS 62.5 (2.6) 18.7 (0.9)
2006Monitoring AH (2003–2010)52.3 (0.8) 8.7 (0.1) 
2007RLMS 62.9 (2.7) 18.8 (0.9)
2008RLMS 60.6 (2.7) 18.7 (0.9)
2009RLMS 58.8 (2.6) 17.8 (0.9)
2009GATS (2009)62.5 (2.0) 22.8 (0.9) 
2010RLMS 56.5 (1.9) 17.9 (0.6)
2010HITT (2010–2011)56.6 (4.1) 23.5 (1.5) 
2013cRLMS 53.3 (1.8) 17.5 (0.6)
2014RLMS 52.3 (1.8) 17.8 (0.6)
2015RLMS 48.6 (1.5) 17.3 (0.7)
2016RLMS 48.1 (1.9) 17.5 (0.7)
2016KYH (2015–2017)48.6 (1.6) 22.2 (0.9) 
2016VCIOM (2016–2017)48.7 (2.2) 21.3 (1.4) 
2016NHANES (2015–2016)24.2 (1.1) 15.4 (0.7) 
2012HSE (2012)23.4 (1.1) 19.2 (0.7) 
  1. Abbreviations: LRC/MONICA Lipid Research Clinics and MONItoring trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease, LLH Living conditions, Lifestyle, and Health, IFS 1 and IFS 2 Izhevsk Family Studies 1 and 2, Monitoring AH Monitoring of Arterial Hypertension in the Russian Federation, SAHR Stress Aging and Health in Russia, SAGE WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health, GATS WHO Global Adult Tobacco Survey, HiTT Health in Times of Transition, KYH Know Your Heart study, VCIOM “Healthy lifestyle monitoring” of the All-Russia Center for Studying Public Opinion, RLMS Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, NHANES National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, HSE Health Survey for England
  2. aFour surveys that include only younger ages under 60 (IFS1 and IFS2) and only older ages above 50–55 (SAGE and SAHR) are not shown in this table. They are included in the analyses of age-specific data and in the regression models
  3. bStandard errors are given in parentheses
  4. cRLMS rounds of 2011 and 2012 are excluded from our analyses for a reason explained in the text (section "Data sets" in the "Methods")