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Table 3 Relationship between GVRO Laws and Suicide Rate Among Older Adults from 2012 to 2016 in the US

From: The impact of gun violence restraining order laws in the U.S. and firearm suicide among older adults: a longitudinal state-level analysis, 2012–2016

Older Adults (> 65 years)Firearm-related suicide rateNon-firearm related suicide rate
 Model 7 (R2 = 0.47)Model 8 (R2 = 0.33)
GVRO law−2.54(1.13)a−0.35(0.48)
Poverty rate0.49(0.06)b−0.05(0.03)
Population density- < 0.01(<.01)b<.01(<.01)a
Medicaid generosity−1.18(0.54)b0.71(0.24)b
Older adult population share19.05(16.10)23.88(7.35)b
Female population share−240.80(40.72)b−118.70 (20.02)b
Older Adults (55–64 years)Firearm-related suicide rateNon-firearm related suicide rate
 Model 10 (R2 = 0.51)Model 11 (R2 = 0.30)
GVRO law−2.45(0.97)a−0.02(0.53)
Poverty rate0.48(0.06)b−0.09(0.03)b
Population density- < 0.01(<.01)b<.01(<.01)
Medicaid generosity−1.81(0.44)b0.96(0.24)b
Older adult population share35.42(19.95)−17.10(10.90)
Female population share−197.20(27.83)b−99.66(17.21)b
  1. Footnotes. GVRO Gun violence restraining order; SE Standard error; N = 242. This table displays fixed effects models of state-level sociodemographic and policy factors predicting firearm- and non-firearm-related suicide rates among older adult populations in the US, excluding the District of Columbia and US territories. Models are adjusted for year. aValue is significant at the 0.05 level. bValue is significant at the 0.01 level