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Table 2 Themes of Active Aging Extracted From the Narrative Review

From: Comprehensive 5P framework for active aging using the ecological approach: an iterative systematic review

ThemesSub-ThemesCodesDefinitionReferences
PersonPersonal characteristic/determinantsAge [7, 23, 31,32,33,34]
Gender
Education level
Ethnicity
Residential tenure
Marital status
Home ownership
Household size
Current driving license
Employment
Eating and drinking habitat [23, 35]
Family support [23, 36]
SELF-CARE [23, 37]
SELF-PROMOTION [23, 37]
Mutual-help [23, 37]
Self-esteem [23, 37]
Life satisfaction [23, 38]
Travel behavior [23, 39]
Behavioral attitude/ determinantsCigarette smoking [38]
[23, 40]
Alcohol consumption 
Practicing exercises/ kind/frequency/length of activity 
PlaceLand- useShopping and obtaining servicesThe arrangement of activities and the the impact between trip origin and destinations
Amount of activity in a given area
The proximity of different land uses
[23, 33, 41,42,43]
Service proximity [23, 44]
Public facilities [23, 33, 45]
Land use mix diversity / land-use compositionAmenities and facilities, such as library, community center, local
shops, traditional clinics, community outreach projects
[33, 41, 43, 46,47,48,49]
Facilities management [50]
Exercise, sports, and recreation facilities [51, 52]
AccessConnectivityConnectivity and inter-linkages: Layering and sequence from
private zone to community gathering zone and neighborhood
Directness and availability of alternative
routes through a neighborhood
Directness and availability to different
areas in a region, composed of
street system, sidewalk network,
pedestrian volumes, and directness
of route
[43, 53,54,55]
Accessibility servicesThe proximity of the home block and its
neighborhood amenities
Systems that provide connections between
activities
[7, 23, 33, 48, 54, 56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63]
Physical activity/ walkable environment/Pavements and roads; safe pedestrian
crossings
Pedestrian infrastructure, good sidewalks, surface area of open
space,
[31, 33, 41,42,43, 48, 49, 51, 53,54,55,56, 58, 59, 63,64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74,75,76,77]
MobilityExterior and interior accessibility
Ease of activities, convenience, disabled facilities, comfortable
movement
[39, 52, 53, 55, 58, 65, 71, 78,79,80,81]
Transportation (public)Adequate and affordable public transport; bus stops[7, 33, 57, 58, 60, 68, 71, 75, 79, 82]
Physical formNeighborhood characteristicsThe number of noticeable differences
in a street; also defines the level of
the complexity of an environment, and,
thus, the interest in the pedestrian
[43, 62]
Urban Block: densityLack of nuisance, free from crowds[43, 83, 84]
Safety: Traffic/speed, volume [7, 31, 33, 41, 48, 63, 68, 75]
Security: Crime/personal security/fall prevention architectural elementsPerceived safety, access to protection, environmental support,
close environment satisfaction, care, and support from family,
social support and Medicare
[7, 41, 42, 44, 53, 54, 60, 85, 86]
Access to nature and green spacesContact with nature, green spaces, parks, gardens, micro-climate[53,54,55, 79, 87]
Topography / slope [23]
Cityscape/City ImagePerceived distance  
Legibility/imageWay finding, understanding, and legibility of directions[64]
Perceived aesthetic/environmental attractivenessAttractiveness and appeal of a place[31, 33, 43, 46, 48, 55, 63, 75, 85]
Natural scenery [33, 41]
Public open spacesStreet lightingOutdoor lighting[33, 53, 57, 88]
Pedestrian safety [9]
Area of green and open spaces [89]
Recreation/ public open spaces [90]
Cleanness/lack of littering/vandalism/decayPhysical comfort: Cleanliness, visual attractiveness,[43, 54, 55, 75, 85]
Sufficient maintenance and managementMaintain structural and planting quality, upkeep of scenic beauty[54, 64]
Pollution (air, visual, noise, litter …)fresh air, free from noise and congestion[56]
Pleasant environment [54]
LandscapeOutdoor seating/urban furniture/
spatial setting
Seating area for rest, communal spaces, special seating, talking
Spaces/
[43, 53,54,55, 57, 64]
HousingUniversal design/ Housing quality variable [47, 68, 91, 92]
Neighborhood Safety [9]
Residential density/density of housing [41, 47,48,49, 93]
Older Residential Care Facility [70]
Outdoor gardens [56, 94]
Type of housing [95,96,97]
ProcessSocial EnvironmentLife expectancy [44]
Quality of life / wellbeing [1, 35, 52, 58, 70, 72, 93]
Social interaction/ networkCommunity and social participation/interaction/relation, sense of
community, community building, sense of belonging
[7, 14, 54, 60, 79, 98]
Happiness [99]
Affordability [44]
Social inclusionAbility to participate in economic and social activities (paid/volunteer work)[41, 44, 53, 60, 63, 79, 83, 100]
Social inequalities [69]
Social demography [31, 101]
Social democracy [41, 102]
Participation (in the planning, implementation and evaluation process, civic participation)The sense of community ownership and involvement in site planning and management, social activities[7, 32, 39, 42, 65, 79, 80, 83, 86, 103,104,105,106]
Social class [23]
Social support/ community life facilities and services [40, 51, 54, 63]
Education, learning, employment and volunteering, [40]
Social capital/ social trust/ Social cohesion [63]
Cultural EnvironmentReligious activity [42, 53, 57, 80, 85, 87]
Cultural events/rituals/social activityForms of recreation, such as walking and other exercises
The sense of place: place attachment/ place identityHeritage, sense of place, the importance of local identity, cultural components integrated into the planning and management of the site
Economic EnvironmentHealth care services [7, 40, 57, 86]
Limited income/pension [40]
Insurance coverage [40]
Socioeconomic status [31, 41]
Affordable housing [7]
Car ownership [41]
Economic security  
Homeownership [1]
Household income [23]
Living situation [23, 41, 70]
Employment [23]
Policy MakingGood GovernanceEffective collaboration and political commitment to the elder [91, 107,108,109,110,111,112,113]
Performance orientationManagers /Independence and autonomy /Local Policies Planning and Governance[61, 70, 73, 112,113,114]
Openness, transparency, and integrity governance  
Equity / inclusiveness  
PrimePhysical HealthDisability [39, 52, 66]
Public health / health environmentThe sense of health, emotional well-being, relaxation and avoiding distress, happiness[23, 39, 42, 53, 57, 67, 77, 88]
Incidence of disease [23]
Pain feeling [23]
Functional ability [23]
Risk of institutionalization [23]
Self-reported falls [23, 34]
Self-reported health [23]
Physical activity [1, 23, 42, 86, 93]
Activities of daily living [23]
Genetic factors [23]
Body mass index obesity [23, 67]
Sleep hygiene [37]
Personal hygiene [37]
Mental HealthDepressive symptomsPersonal esteem, autonomy, and empowerment, independence,
self-efficacy, attachment to the place
from stress; PE: positive emotions; AC: attention capacity; CC: cognitive capacity.
[23, 39, 57, 65, 88, 93]
Cognitive functioning
Psychological distress
Psychological wellbeing
Anxiety
Anger
Restorative activity
Spiritual activity
Self-actualizationProvide opportunities for learning, gaining knowledge[53, 79, 115]
Social Health1) family, (2) work, (3) community involvement, and (4) social life [39, 41, 70, 116, 117]
sense of community identity; CE: community empowerment; SC: social capital; CL: culture [98, 116]
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