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Table 2 Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for anemia among women age 15–49 across the survey years, UDHS 2006, 2011, 2016

From: Determinants of Anemia among women in Uganda: further analysis of the Uganda demographic and health surveys

Characteristic2006 UDHS2011 UDHS2016 UDHSPooled Data
Odds Ratio[95% CI]Odds Ratio[95% CI]Odds Ratio[95% CI]Odds Ratio[95% CI]
Place of residence (rc: Urban)
 Rural1.61*1.01–2.561.130.71–1.800.940.77–1.151.100.92–1.32
Region (rc: Kampala)
 Central11.600.78–3.290.950.49–1.850.920.63–1.321.140.85–1.54
 Central20.760.38–1.521.400.76–2.551.000.67–1.481.070.79–1.45
 East Central0.980.49–1.951.350.74–2.461.400.97–2.031.330.98–1.80
 Eastern0.930.47–1.841.100.55–2.180.780.54–1.130.910.67–1.24
 Northern1.650.81–3.360.660.34–1.291.350.92–1.981.300.95–1.78
 West Nile0.580.30–1.131.320.69–2.541.310.83–2.051.150.81–1.61
 Western0.790.39–1.600.670.32–1.400.920.61–1.370.870.63–1.21
 South Western1.020.49–2.120.40*0.19–0.840.59*0.38–0.920.71*0.51–1.00
Wealth index (rc: Poorest)
 Poorer1.060.78–1.450.930.64–1.350.80*0.64–0.990.860.74–1.01
 Middle0.920.64–1.310.740.48–1.150.74*0.58–0.950.76**0.63–0.91
 Richer0.840.60–1.190.850.56–1.290.74*0.57–0.970.75**0.62–0.90
 Richest0.710.47–1.080.770.39–1.530.55***0.40–0.760.59***0.47–0.76
Type of toilet facility (rc: Improved)
 Shared toilet0.890.62–1.281.110.69–1.780.890.69–1.140.930.77–1.12
 Nonimproved toilet1.010.70–1.461.000.68–1.491.000.81–1.240.980.83–1.16
 No facility1.030.64–1.681.450.82–2.570.900.65–1.251.010.80–1.29
Source of drinking water (rc: Improved)
 Nonimproved1.090.85–1.401.160.86–1.561.32**1.08–1.611.18*1.03–1.36
Sex of the household head (rc: Male)
 Female1.010.80–1.280.960.74–1.251.050.90–1.221.030.92–1.15
Age of woman (rc: 15–19)
 20–241.010.70–1.471.320.85–2.051.010.80–1.281.060.88–1.26
 25–290.990.66–1.461.160.75–1.800.75*0.57–0.990.880.72–1.07
 30–340.950.65–1.390.930.57–1.520.880.64–1.200.910.73–1.12
 35–391.190.77–1.841.99**1.27–3.140.860.64–1.171.110.89–1.37
 40–441.050.66–1.661.480.87–2.520.980.72–1.341.070.85–1.34
 45–490.920.58–1.461.680.96–2.951.010.73–1.401.070.84–1.36
Woman’s level of education (rc: None)
 Primary0.890.71–1.120.890.64–1.250.850.69–1.040.880.76–1.01
 Secondary1.130.81–1.581.070.64–1.780.960.74–1.251.020.84–1.23
 Higher0.940.56–1.570.810.40–1.621.070.73–1.591.010.76–1.35
Woman currently pregnant (rc: No)
 Yes2.00***1.49–2.671.47*1.02–2.101.33*1.07–1.651.49***1.28–1.73
Woman has ever given birth (rc: No)
 Yes1.340.96–1.880.900.59–1.351.200.93–1.541.170.98–1.40
Woman involved in decision-making (rc: No)
 Yes1.030.79–1.340.760.51–1.150.840.66–1.080.860.73–1.02
 Missing1.040.76–1.440.720.46–1.141.000.75–1.320.930.77–1.13
Distance to facility a problem (rc: No)
 Yes0.920.76–1.121.120.88–1.431.010.88–1.161.020.92–1.13
Survey year (rc: 2006)
 2011      0.30***0.26–0.36
 2016      0.47***0.41–0.54
Total observations2645 2580 5799 11,024 
  1. Level of significance *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05
  2. CI: Confidence interval
  3. rc: Reference category