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Table 1 Proportion of women age 15–49 who were anemic over the survey years by background characteristics, UDHS 2006, 2011, 2016

From: Determinants of Anemia among women in Uganda: further analysis of the Uganda demographic and health surveys

Characteristic2006 UDHS2011 UDHS2016 UDHSPooled Data
p-value/
percent
np-value/
percent
np-value/
percent
np-value/
percent
n
Place of residence(0.000) (0.140) (0.003) (0.000) 
 Urban35.042919.950927.5148527.22423
 Rural52.5224423.8203032.9426035.98534
Region(0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) 
 Kampala33.220419.624325.329425.6741
 Central159.728423.626127.875733.91303
 Central242.124030.324331.661433.61097
 East Central48.925729.826939.260839.11134
 Eastern50.436928.437827.391632.71663
 Northern63.840521.029041.275443.41449
 West Nile37.414932.116139.837437.4685
 Western45.540917.437230.575431.31535
 South Western50.135311.732423.067527.41352
Wealth index(0.000) (0.029) (0.000) (0.000) 
 Poorest57.946828.644640.7103742.01952
 Poorer55.952026.444832.9102937.41998
 Middle50.450019.446930.8107932.92048
 Richer48.152722.254031.0116832.92235
 Richest39.665720.263625.0143227.42725
Type of toilet facility(0.001) (0.044) (0.000) (0.000) 
 Improved toilet44.824421.742229.7131829.81985
 Shared toilet42.243122.950126.8109029.22022
 Nonimproved toilet50.7170122.0140333.2301835.56122
 No facility58.829133.021239.331944.6822
Source of drinking water(0.071) (0.948) (0.023) (0.001) 
 Improved48.1184923.0186530.6458532.88298
 Nonimproved53.282323.267535.3116037.82659
Sex of the household head(0.587) (0.621) (0.199) (0.977) 
 Male50.1184223.4171530.8367734.07233
 Female48.783122.482432.7206934.03724
Age group(0.295) (0.008) (0.113) (0.021) 
 15–1944.857819.260332.4129029.92471
 20–2450.751824.544333.7116036.02122
 25–2950.645822.147427.294431.61875
 30–3450.239618.132330.880233.11564
 35–3954.430830.831930.664536.41272
 40–4451.124025.919533.553836.3973
 45–4948.917427.118132.936635.3722
Woman’s level of education(0.018) (0.211) (0.050) (0.000) 
 No education56.053227.530837.256742.21406
 Primary49.2158522.9153731.6330833.86431
 Secondary45.746122.556330.1146031.32485
 Higher41.49416.813128.640928.0635
Woman is currently pregnant(0.000) (0.006) (0.006) (0.000) 
 No47.6234422.1225730.9515632.99756
 Yes64.432930.628337.358943.21201
Woman has ever given birth(0.001) (0.017) (0.750) (0.001) 
 No43.260819.365831.1144630.92712
 Yes51.6206424.4188131.7429935.08245
Whether woman is involved in decision-making(0.008) (0.019) (0.085) (0.000) 
 No52.637729.631035.743739.71124
 Yes51.9136923.9127830.3310734.05755
 Missing45.292619.995132.4220132.44078
Distance to facility a big problem to woman(0.182) (0.127) (0.019) (0.000) 
 No48.0125221.7146630.3358131.86299
 Yes51.1141825.0107333.6216436.94656
Total49.7 (N = 2672)23.1 (N = 2539)31.5 (N = 5745)34.0 (N = 10,957)