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Table 2 Diagnostic Accuracy of the Neurobehavioral Screening Tool

From: The cost-effectiveness of screening tools used in the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: a modelled analysis

StudyStudy InformationCriteria for Positive ScreenSensitivity (SD)aSpecificity (SD) a
1. LaFrance et al., 2014 [30]Sample Size = 80
Positives Included = 48
Positive Cases = Children with FASD diagnosis.
Controls = Typically developing children.
Average Age = 12
≥ 6 of items 1–7 or ≥ 3 of items 1–4.63% (6.9%)100% b (1.7%)
2. Breiner et al., 2013 [31]Sample Size = 60
Positives Included = 17
Positive Cases = Children with FASD diagnosis.
Controls = 18 children suspected for FASD but for whom diagnosis could not be confirmed and 25 typically developing children.
Median Age = 5 c
≥ 5 of items 1, 2, 4–8.94% (5.6%)96% (3.0%)
3. Nash et al., 2011 [32]Sample Size = 109
Positives Included = 56
Positive Cases = Children with FASD diagnosis.
Controls = Typically developing children.
Average Age = 10
Sample Size = 106
≥ 3 of items 1–1098% (1.9%)42% (6.7%)
Positives Included = 56
Positive Cases = Children with FASD diagnosis.
Controls = Children with ADHD diagnosis.
Average Age = 10
≥ 2 of items 1, 4, 8, 9, 10.89% (4.1%)42% (6.9%)
4. Nash et al., 2006 [33]Sample Size = 60
Positives Included = 30
Positive Cases = Children with FASD diagnosis.
Controls = Typically developing children.
Median Age = 11 c
≥ 6 of items 1–786% (6.2%)82% (6.9%)
Sample Size = 60
Positives Included = 30
Positive Cases = Children with FASD diagnosis.
Controls = Children with ADHD diagnosis.
Median Age = 11 c
≥ 3 of items 1, 4, 8, 9, 10.81% (7.0%)72% (8.1%)
  1. a If SD were not reported, they were calculated using the beta distribution variance formula
  2. b Sensitivity and specificity were assumed to be 99% instead of 100%, as the beta distribution calculates an SD of 0 for mean values of 100%
  3. c If the average age of study participants was not provided, the median was reported