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Table 5 Predictors of misuse/abuse of opioids-containing products among opioid users (n = 146)

From: Extent of misuse and dependence of codeine-containing products among medical and pharmacy students in a Nigerian University

VariableMisused/abused of
opioids/codeine-containing products
n (%)
Unadjusted Odds ratioAdjusted Odds ratio
OR (95% CI)p-valueAOR (95% CI)p-value
 YesNo    
Experienced some side effects I will like to experience again
 Yes10 (62.5)12 (9.2)16.39 (5.07–52.99)< 0.00122.1 (5.98–81.72)< 0.001*
 No6 (37.5)118 (90.8)1 1 
Pressured into using codeine-containing product
 Yes3 (18.8)4 (3.1)7.27 (1.47–36.08)0.01510.58 (1.36–82.39)0.024*
 No13 (81.2)126 (96.9)1 1 
Need to use regular dose of these products to function well daily
 Yes2 (12.5)3 (2.3)6.05 (0.93–39.33)0.063.42 (0.32–95.46)0.309
 No14 (87.5)127 (97.7)1 1 
  1. *Significant difference with binary logistic regression, level of significance, p < 0.05