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Table 3 Respondents’ perception on the use of opioids-containing products (n = 520)

From: Extent of misuse and dependence of codeine-containing products among medical and pharmacy students in a Nigerian University

VariableSAAUDSD50thpercentile
 n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%) 
1.Codeine/codeine containing products can be abused399 (76.7)103 (19.8)9 (1.7)3 (0.6)6 (1.2)5
2.Codeine abuse/misuse can lead to dependency397 (76.3)115 (22.1)7 (1.6)0 (0.0)1 (0.2)5
3.Codeine abuse/misuse can affect psychological well-being355 (68.3)141 (27.1)19 (3.7)4 (0.8)1 (0.2)5
4.Codeine abuse/misuse can lead to neurological side effects332 (63.8)146 (28.1)37 (7.1)4 (0.8)1(0.2)5
5.Codeine abuse/misuse can lead to socially unacceptable behaviour336 (64.6)147 (28.3)26 (5.0)11 (2.1)0 (0.0)5
6.Codeine abuse/misuse can affect pattern of spending278 (53.5)161 (31.0)66 (12.7)13 (2.5)2 (0.4)5
7.Codeine abuse/misuse can result in accidental overdose295 (56.7)185 (35.6)34 (6.5)5 (1.0)1(0.2)5
8.Codeine abuse/misuse can result in life-threatening withdrawal symptoms295 (56.7)185 (35.6)34 (6.5)5 (1.0)1(0.2)5
9.Codeine abuse/misuse can cause reduced fertility in males and females129 (24.8)76 (14.6)299 (57.5)16 (3.1)0 (0.0)3
Cut-off scoreUsing opioids
(n = 146)
Not using opioids
(n = 374)
Remark
<  36 (i.e. <  80%)16 (11.0)35 (9.4)Poor perception of risks
≥ 36 (i.e. ≥ 80%)130 (89.0)339 (90.6)Good perception of risks
 [X2 = 0.304 p-value = 0.508]