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Table 2 Experiential and behavioural processes of change

From: Applying trans-theoretical model for blood donation among Spanish adults: a cross-sectional study


Processes of Change


Experiential Processes

Consciousness Raising

Increase awareness and gain understanding about the behaviour change

I recall articles, posts and/or TV messages about donating blood.

I look for information related to blood donation process.

I seek out groups of people who can raise my awareness about how to become a blood donor.

Dramatic Relief

Increase emotional experiences about the behaviour change

Portrayals of people whose lives are saved by blood donation affect me emotionally.

I am moved by a person who helped save lives by donating blood.

I get upset when I hear stories about people whose lives depend on regular blood transfusions.

Environmental Reevaluation

Realize how the behaviour change affects physical and social environment

I am considering the idea that I could save lives by donating blood

I stop to think about how donating blood would be beneficial for people in my community

I realize that people who donate blood are a great source of inspiration to others.


Assess how one feels with and without the behaviour change

I think that being a blood donor supports my view of myself as a caring and responsible person.

I feel very competent and proud when I (decide to) donate blood.

Being a non-donor makes me feel disappointed and helpless.

Social Liberation

Harness environmental and social opportunities with the behaviour change

I am aware that society is actively encouraging and supporting people to become blood donors.

I notice that there are more opportunities to donate blood in my community.

I see more companies and organizations hosting and sponsoring blood drives.

Behavioural Processes


Choose and commit to act or believe in the ability to change

I make commitments to myself to donate blood.

I recognize I have the energy needed to be a blood donor.

I tell myself that I can be a blood donor despite the fact that my relatives and friends don’t support my decision.

Reinforcement Management

Reward oneself or be awarded for making steps towards behaviour change

I can expect to be praised and appreciated by others for donating blood

I feel respected in society for being a blood donor.

I reward myself with a treat after donating blood.

Helping Relationships

Trust and accept the support of others that encourage the desired behaviour

I share with someone my thoughts and feelings about blood donation.

There are special people around me that encourage me and improve my willpower to continue donating blood.

I have a friend on whom I can count to come with me when I want to donate blood.

Counter Conditioning

Substitute healthy behaviours and thoughts for the problem behaviour

I keep in mind that blood donation is a simple and safe process to overcome the fear of donating.

When I am hesitant to donate blood, I remind myself that it helps save lives.

Whenever I feel tempted to reassess being a blood donor, I begin to think about all the health benefits it offers.

Stimulus Control

Avoid cues for unhealthy habits and add stimuli that encourage alternative behaviours

I make sure I know when and where nearby blood drives are held.

I schedule my blood appointments.

I keep around any source of information associated with blood donation to reconsider my reasons for donating blood.