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Table 5 Changes of nutritional indicators in the study cohort by group (control, intervention (SG) and additive Intervention (SG+)) in two districts of Nepal, June 2016

From: Nutritional and health status of children 15 months after integrated school garden, nutrition, and water, sanitation and hygiene interventions: a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Nepal

OutcomesEnd-line (June 2016)Effect of SG-intervention (95% CI)ap-valueEffect of combined intervention (SG+) (95%CI)ap-value
Control (%)SG-intervention (%)Combined intervention (SG+) (%)
Logistic models (binary outcomes)
 Persistenceb of stunting20 (37.7)10 (34.5)14 (36.8)0.57 (0.13–2.60)0.470.78 (0.18–3.25)0.73
 Persistence of thinness8 (24.2)4 (25.0)4 (36.4)1.36 (0.22–8.29)0.743.50 (0.43–28.74)0.24
 Persistence of overweight4 (66.7)0 (0.0)1 (14.3)n/a n/a 
 Persistence of anaemia32 (52.5)23 (67.6)30 (47.6)2.21 (0.74–6.62)0.150.70 (0.27–1.81)0.46
 Incidence of stunting31 (14.3)22 (16.3)21 (13.7)0.60 (0.28–1.29)0.190.60 (0.24–1.49)0.27
 Incidence of thinness11 (4.70)13 (8.8)15 (8.3)2.06 (0.81–5.21)0.133.07 (1.10–8.61)0.03
 Incidence of overweight14 (5.3)6 (3.7)6 (3.3)0.38 (0.86–1.65)0.200.58 (0.13–2.61)0.48
 Incidencec of anaemia79 (38.0)49 (37.7)31 (24.2)1.20 (0.43–3.33)0.730.56 (0.16–1.90)0.35
Linear model (continuous outcomes)d
 Change in height-for-age (for stunting)−0.02 (−0.24, 0.19)−0.16 (0.44, 0.13)0.19 (−0.09, 0.46)0.05 (−0.46–0.56)0.850.41 (−0.17–0.98)0.41
 Change in BMI-for age (for thinness)1.58 (1.14, 2.02)0.94 (0.35, 1.54)1.02 (0.44, 1.59)−0.98 (−1.74- (− 0.22))0.01− 0.64 (−1.49–0.22)0.14
 Height gain (cm)5.20 (3.98, 6.43)3.20 (1.59, 4.81)6.84 (5.33, 8.35)−0.52 (−2.67–1.63)0.642.88 (− 0.54–5.23)0.02
 Weight gain (kg)6.16 (5.11, 7.21)3.50 (2.09, 4.91)5.75 (4.42, 7.09)−2.15 (−4.55- (−0.26))0.080.22 (− 2.47–2.92)0.87
 Change in haemoglobin level (g/dl)−0.64 (− 0.98, − 0.30)−0.60 (− 1.06, − 0.13)−0.03 (− 0.48, 0.42)−0.03 (− 0.78–0.72)0.940.58 (− 0.26–1.43)0.18
  1. SG School garden
  2. SG+ School garden, nutrition, and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)
  3. aLogistic regression models: odds ratio from a mixed logistic regression model of outcome at follow-up as a function of outcome at baseline with a random effect for school adjusting for socioeconomic status
  4. bPersistence: Children who were still symptomatic at follow-up (i.e. did not have a remission)
  5. cIncidence: Occurrence of new cases
  6. dFirst three columns contain estimates and 95% confidence intervals of average changes from baseline to follow-up in the respective study arms, obtained using mixed linear regression models with random intercepts at the level of schools. Column 4 to 7 contain intervention effects (SG vs control and SG+ vs control) estimated by mixed linear models for the changes in the respective outcome variables, with the two intervention indicator variables as main predictors and random intercepts for the schools, further adjusting for the district, age and sex of the child, and socioeconomic status of the caregivers. Estimates can be interpreted as adjusted differences in the mean changes of the respective variables between the given intervention group and the control group