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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of the sample in each country (N = 37,724)

From: Psychological intimate partner violence against women in the European Union: a cross-national invariance study

 Age (%)Income (%)Self-perceived healthExperiences of child abuse (%)
18–2425–3435–5960+Q1Q2Q3Q4MSD
Austria12.421.345.121.134.123.026.616.31.770.8626.7
Belgium8.017.053.621.410.724.537.727.12.040.8726.0
Bulgaria4.913.544.237.312.539.135.013.52.341.0027.7
Croatia5.415.152.227.327.022.725.824.52.231.1131.8
Cyprus18.427.545.19.16.227.449.516.91.600.8012.2
Czech Republic9.816.649.024.629.829.222.818.22.060.8932.3
Denmark12.215.349.023.525.535.124.914.51.820.9041.9
Estonia5.912.747.034.428.023.626.122.32.560.9248.4
Finland5.915.545.233.519.322.427.630.72.070.7952.2
France5.414.757.022.952.732.59.75.11.990.8444.9
Germany5.713.355.925.223.526.129.221.32.140.8442.8
Greece7.416.450.925.221.940.733.14.31.690.8823.7
Hungary8.315.346.729.620.129.423.726.82.490.9923.8
Ireland6.220.149.724.139.730.320.99.21.690.8327.7
Italy4.414.660.820.162.530.05.42.02.230.7633.6
Latvia7.415.746.930.023.626.025.025.52.680.8331.5
Lithuania5.611.854.328.344.216.716.522.62.570.8518.4
Luxembourg3.814.063.718.515.532.631.420.51.940.8944.0
Malta3.913.652.330.130.841.320.67.22.060.6623.4
Netherlands3.212.159.525.218.928.726.925.62.150.7733.0
Poland9.923.747.518.810.424.730.734.22.230.9817.6
Portugal4.311.347.836.622.440.620.616.32.660.9228.4
Romania9.218.747.924.329.220.719.830.32.381.0322.7
Slovakia6.818.653.920.818.323.728.129.92.100.9632.9
Slovenia5.513.452.328.912.930.935.221.12.130.9013.2
Spain3.915.354.726.135.429.422.313.02.130.8929.2
Sweden2.710.854.332.23.527.223.645.71.930.9243.2
United Kingdom6.015.950.028.138.38.98.844.01.920.9538.0
  1. The percentages and descriptive statistics are unweighted. M Mean, SD Standard Deviation. Income: Q1 = under lowest quartile, Q2 = between lowest quartile and median, Q3 = between median and highest quartile, Q4 = above highest quartile