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Table 5 Relative Index of Inequality (RII: wealth and education), and Concentration Index (wealth) for vaccination coverage among 12–23 months’ children by maternal education and household wealth quintile, Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001–2016)

From: The trend of full vaccination coverage in infants and inequalities by wealth quintile and maternal education: analysis from four recent demographic and health surveys in Nepal

 2001200620112016P value*
Coverage ratio(95% CI)
 No education (ref.)
  Primary1.5 (1.3,1.6)1.2 (1.1,1.3)1.2 (1.1,1.3)1.1 (1.0,1.3)0.0103
  Secondary1.6 (1.4,1.8)1.3 (1.2,1.4)1.2 (1.1,1.3)1.2 (1.0,1.3)0.0018
  Higher education1.6 (1.4,1.8)1.3 (1.2,1.4)1.2 (1.1,1.3)1.3 (1.2,1.5)0.0033
RII (95% CI)0.3 (0.2,0.5)0.5 (0.4,0.7)0.7 (0.6,0.8)0.7 (0.6,0.8)0.0005
Coverage ratio(95% CI)
 Poorest (ref.)
  Poorer1.2 (1.0,1.4)1.2 (1.1,1.4)1.0 (0.9,1.1)1.0 (0.9,1.1)0.0788
  Middle1.2 (1.0,1.4)1.3 (1.1,1.5)1.0 (0.9,1.1)0.9 (0.8,1.0)0.0030
  Richer1.4 (1.1,1.7)1.3 (1.2,1.5)1.1 (1.0,1.2)1.1 (1.0,1.2)0.0175
  Richest1.5 (1.3,1.8)1.4 (1.2,1.6)1.1 (1.0,1.2)1.1 (0.9,1.2)0.0019
RII (95% CI)0.6 (0.5,0.8)0.7 (0.5,0.8)0.9 (0.8,1.0)0.9 (0.8,1.0)0.0026
Concentration Index (95% CI)0.21 (0.12–0.28)0.20 (0.12–0.29)0.08 (0.02–0.13)0.054 (−0.01–0.12)na
  1. *P value for test of heterogeneity in log prevalence ratio or RII across years
  2. na = not applicable
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